“Hang on a sec, teacher”: collaborative and individual strategic planning as a means to perform L2 oral tasks at a public school

Rafael Zaccaron, Donesca Cristina Puntel Xhafaj, Raquel Carolina de Souza Ferraz D'Ely


Bearingin mind the challenges involved in speech production (LEVELT, 1989), especially in the L2 (KORMOS, 2014), this study examines strategic planning (ELLIS, 2005) and its impact on the performance of learners of English as an L2 in an oral task carried out after they had planned it individually or collaboratively. Drawing from the output hypothesis (SWAIN, 1985), this piece of research analysed quantitative and qualitative data from the narratives produced by 17 high school students. The quantitative analysis showed a statistically significant advantage for the outcome variable when the participants planned collaboratively. At the same time, while the results for fluency and accuracy were not statistically significant, they also favoured the same planning condition. The qualitative data indicated wide acceptance of oral tasks with the use of WhatsApp. It is suggested that the adoption of tasks that include strategic planning as a means to lessen the attentional burden involved in L2 speech production (FORTKAMP, 2000) may be an attractive pedagogical resource to help English students to learn the language in a contextualized way.


Oral Task; Strategic Planning; Collaborative Work; Output Hypothesis; Second Language Acquisition; Whatsapp


ANDERSON, Neil J. The role of metacognition in second language teaching and learning. ERIC Digest, 2002. Disponível em: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED463659. Acessoem: 14 junho 2019.

BALEGHIZADEH, Sasan. The effect of pair work on a word-building task. ELT Journal. v. 64, n. 4, p. 405-413, 2010.

BATSTONE, Rob. Language form, task-based language teaching, and the classroom context. ELT Journal, v. 66, n. 4, p. 459-467, 2012.

BEI, Gavin Xiaoyue. Effects of immediate repetition in L2 speaking tasks: a focused study. English Language Teaching. v. 6, n.1, p. 11-19, 2013.

BENISS, Aram Reza Sadeghi; BAZZAZ, VahidEdalati. The impact of pushed output on accuracy and fluency of Iranian EFL learners’ speaking. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research. v. 2, n. 2, p. 51-72, 2014.

BYGATE, Michael. Effects of task repetition on the structure and control of oral language. In: BYGATE, Michael; SKEHAN, Peter; SWAIN, Merrill. (ed.). Researching pedagogic tasks – second language learning and testing. Harlow: Longman. 2001, p. 23-48.

D’ELY, Raquel C. S. F.A focus on learners’ metacognitive processes: the impact of strategic planning, repetition, strategic planning plus repetition, and strategic planning for repetition on L2 oral performance. Tese (Doutorado em Inglês: Estudos Linguísticos e Literários) - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, 2006. Disponível em: https://repositorio.ufsc.br/handle/123456789/89407. Acesso em: 22 outubro 2018.

D’ELY, Raquel; MOTA, Mailce; BYGATE, Martin. Strategic planning and repetition as metacognitive processes in task performance: Implications for EFL learners' speech production. In: WEN, Zhisheng (Edward); AHMADIAN, Mohammad Javad. (ed.) Researching L2 task performance and Pedagogy. in honour of Peter Skehan. John Benjamins, 2019, p. 199-228.

DORNYEI, Zoltan. Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodologies. UK: Oxford University Press, p. 336, 2007.

ELLIS, Rod. Instructed Second Language Acquisition: a Literature Review. Auckland UniServices Limited. Auckland: New Zealand, 2005.

FARIAS, Priscila Fabiane. Task-Test: what lies beyond implementing a task-based assessment? Comparing learners’ performance and unveiling learners’ perception in a testing situation. Dissertação (Mestrado em Inglês: Estudos Linguísticos e Literários) -Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, 2014. Disponível em:https://repositorio.ufsc.br/handle/123456789/123320. Acesso em: 14 novembro 2018.

FORTKAMP, Mailce Borges Mota. Working memory capacity and L2 speech production: an exploration study. Tese (Doutorado em Inglês: Estudos Linguísticos e Literários) - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, 2000. Disponível em:http://repositorio.ufsc.br/xmlui/handle/123456789/78287. Acesso em: 10 julho 2019.

FOSTER, Pauline; OHTA, Amy Snider. Negotiation for meaning and peer assistance in second language classrooms. Applied Linguistics. v. 26, n. 3, p. 402-430, 2005.

FOSTER, Pauline; SKEHAN, Peter. The influence of planning and task type on second language performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. v.18, p. 299‒323, 1996.

FOSTER, Pauline; TONKYN, Alan; WIGGLESWORTH, Gillian. Measuring spoken language: a unit for all reasons. AppliedLinguistics. v. 21 n. 3, p. 354-375, 2000.

GUARÁ-TAVARES, Maria da Glória. The relationship among pre-task planning, working memory capacity, and L2 speech performance: a pilot study. Linguagem & Ensino. v. 12, n. 1, p. 165-194, 2009.

GUARA-TAVARES, Maria da Glória. Learners’ processes during pre-task planning and Working Memory Capacity. Ilha do Desterro. v. 60, n. 1 p. 79-94, 2016.

HAN, Turgay; KESKIN, Firat. Using a mobile application (WhatsApp) to reduce EFL speaking anxiety. Gist Education and Learning Research Journal. n. 12, Jan.-Jun, p. 29-50, 2016.

HYDE, Martin. Pair work – A Blessing or a Curse?: An Analysis of pair work from pedagogical, cultural, social and psychological perspectives. System, v. 21, n. 3, p. 343-348, 1993.

IZUMI, Shinichi. Comprehension and production processes in second language learning: in search of the psycholinguistic rationale of the output hypothesis. Applied Linguistics. v. 24, n. 2, p. 168-196, 2003.

KORMOS, Judit. Speech Production and Second Language Acquisition. Routledge, 2014.

KOWAL, Maria; SWAIN, Merrill. Using collaborative language production tasks to promote students’ language awareness. Language Awareness. v. 3, n. 2, 1994, p. 73-93.

LARSON-HALL, Jenifer. A guide to doing statistics in second language research using SPSS. New York: Routledge, 2010.

LEVELT, Willem Johannes Maria. Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1989.

LI, Lanlan; CHEN, Jiliang; SUN, Lan. The effects of different lengths of pretask planning time on L2 learners’ oral test performance. TESOL Quarterly. v. 49, n.1, p. 38-66, 2015.

LIMA, Marília dos Santos; COSTA, Patrícia da Silva Campelo. O diálogo colaborativo como ação potencial para a aprendizagem de línguas. TrabalhosemLinguísticaAplicada. v. 49, n. 1, p. 167-184, 2016.

LONG, Michael. Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology. In DE BOT, Kees; GINSBERG, Ralph; KRAMSCH, Claire (ed.). Foreign language research in crosscultural perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamin, 1991, p. 179-192.

LONG, Michael. Focus on form in task-based language teaching. In: LAMBERT, Richard; SHOHAMY, Elana (ed.), Language policy and pedagogy. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2010, p. 456.

LONG, Michael. Second language acquisition and task-based language Teaching. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015.

LOEWEN, Shawn; SATO, Masatoshi. Interaction and instructed second language acquisition: State-of-the-art. Language Teaching. v. 1, n. 3, p. 285-329, 2018.

LYNCH, Tony; MACLEAN, Joan. Exploring the benefits of repetition and recycling of a classroom task. Language Teaching Research. v. 4, n. 3, p. 221-250, 2000.

MCLAUGHLIN, Barry. Theories of Second Language Learning. London: Edward Arnold, 1987.

MEHNERT, Uta. The effects of different lengths of time for planning on second language performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. v. 20, p. 83-108, 1998.

MICHEL, Marije. Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in L2 Production. In: LOEWEN, Shawn; SATO, Masatoshi. The Routledge Handbook of Instructed Second Language Acquisition. New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 50-68.

ORTEGA, Lourdes. Planning and focus on form in L2 oral performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. v.21, n. 1, p.109-148, 1999.

ORTEGA, Lourdes. What do learners plan? Learner-driven attention to form during pretask planning. In: ELLIS, Rod (Ed.). Planning and task performance in a second language. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2005, p. 77-109.

ORTEGA, Lourdes. Understanding second language acquisition. London: Hodder Education, 2009.

OXFORD, Rebecca L. Teaching and researching language learning strategies.New York: Routledge, 2013.

PAIVA, Vera Lucia Menezes de Oliveira. The complexity of online collaborative writing. Horizontes de Linguística Aplicada. v. 14, n.1, p. 15-30, 2015.

PANG, Francine; SKEHAN, Peter. Self-reported planning behaviour and second language performance in narrative retelling. In: SKEHAN, Peter (ed.). Processing Perspectives on Task Performance. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2014, p. 95-128.

PALOTTI, Gabriele. CAF: Defining, refining and differentiating constructs. Applied Linguistics. v. 30, n. 4, p. 590-601, 2009.

RICHARDS, Jack; FARRELL, Thomas. Practice teaching: a reflective approach. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

SCHMIDT, Richard. Attention. In: ROBINSON, Peter (ed.). Cognition and second language instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, p. 3-32.

SKEHAN, Peter. A framework for the implementation of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics. v.17, n. 1, p. 38-62, 1996.

SKEHAN, Peter. A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

SKEHAN, Peter. Task-based Instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

SKEHAN, Peter. The context for researching a processing perspective on task performance. In: SKEHAN, Peter (ed.). Processing Perspectives on Task Performance. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2014, p. 1-26.

SKEHAN, Peter; XIAOYUE, Bei; QIAN, Li; WANG, Zhan. The task is not enough: Processing approaches to task-based performance. Language Teaching Research. v. 16, n. 2, p. 170-187, 2012.

SPECHT, Andre. Is strategic planning enough?:investigating the impact of two types of strategy instruction on students’ oral planned performance. Tese (Doutorado em Inglês: Estudos Linguísticos e Literários) - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, 2017. Disponível em:https://repositorio.ufsc.br/handle/123456789/187086. Acesso em: 12 outubro 2018.

SPECHT, Andre; D’ELY, Raquel Carolina Souza Ferraz.Planning oral narrative tasks: optimizing strategic planning condition through strategy instruction. ActaScientiarum (UEM), v. 39, n. 2, p. 203- 212, 2017.

STORCH, Neomy. Relationships formed in dyadic interaction and opportunity for learning. International Journal of Educational Research. v.37, n. 3, p. 305–322, 2002.

SWAIN, Merrill. Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In: GASS, Susan; MADDEN, Carolyn (ed.) Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1985, p. 235-253.

SWAIN, Merrill. The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue. In: LANTOLF, James (ed.) Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 97-114.

SWAIN, Merrill. Integrating language and content teaching through collaborative tasks. The Canadian Modern Language Review. v. 58, n.1, p. 44-63, 2001.

SWAIN, Merrill; LAPKIN, Sharon. The evolving sociopolitical context of immersion education in Canada: some implications for program development. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. v. 15, n. 2, p. 169–186, 2005.

TAVAKOLI, Parvaneh; FOSTER, Pauline. Task Design and Second Language Performance: The Effect of Narrative Type on Learner Output. Language Learning, v. 58, n.2, p. 439-473, 2008.

TAVAKOLI, Parvaneh; SKEHAN, Peter. Strategic planning, task structure and performance testing. In: ELLIS, Rod. (ed.). Planning and task performance in a second language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2005.

VIDAL, Rejane Teixeira. Instrução-focada-na-forma, lingualização e aprendizagem de ILE por aprendizes brasileiros. Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada. v. 10, n.1, p. 179-205, 2010.

WEISSHEIMER, Janaina; CALDAS, Vaneska; MARQUES, Fábio. Using WhatsApp to develop L2 oral production. RevistaLeitura. v. 1, n. 60, p. 21-38, 2018.

XHAFAJ, Donesca C. P.One is good, two is better: Investigating the impact of peer-planning in the oral performance of intermediate L2 English learners.Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso – Letras Inglês. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, 2013.

XHAFAJ, Donesca C. P.; MUCK, Katia E. D'ELY, Raquel C.S.F. The impact of individual and peer planning on the oral performance of advanced learners of English as a foreign language. Linguagem&Ensino (UCPel. Impresso). v. 14, n. 1, p. 39-65, 2011.

ZACCARON, Rafael.The more the merrier(?): the impact of individual and collaborative strategic planning on performance of an oral task by young learners of English as an L2 in Brazil.Dissertação (Mestrado em Inglês: Estudos Linguísticos e Literários) -Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, 2018a. Disponível em: https://repositorio.ufsc.br/handle/123456789/189173. Acesso em: 24 julho 2019.

ZACCARON, Rafael. Again and Again: an immediate repetition oral task viewed in light of Swain’s output hypothesis.Domínios de Lingu@gem, v. 12, n. 3, p. 1401-1427, 2018b.

ZACCARON, Rafael;D’ELY, Raquel C. de S. F.; XHAFAJ, Donesca C. P. Estudo piloto: um processo importante de adaptação e refinamento para uma pesquisa quase experimental em aquisição de l2. Revista do GELNE, v. 20, n. 1, p. 30-41, 2018.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2019v72n3p401

Copyright (c) 2019 Rafael Zaccaron, Donesca Cristina Puntel Xhafaj, Raquel Carolina de Souza Ferraz D'Ely

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.