“Sentimos que nossa força está no chão de fábrica”: dualismo, poder do chão de fábrica e reforma das leis do trabalho no fim do apartheid na África do Sul

Alex Lichtenstein

Resumo


Este artigo explora a transformação das relações de trabalho sul-africanas durante os anos 80. Em 1979, motivada pela nova militância de chão de fábrica, a Comissão Wiehahn recomendou que os trabalhadores negros, anteriormente excluídos da maquinaria de trabalho do Estado, fossem autorizados a se unir a sindicatos reconhecidos. A maioria das discussões sobre essa mudança nas relações de trabalho do apartheid concentra-se no debate que se seguiu dentro dos sindicatos negros, divididos entre preservar sua independência ou assegurar a legitimação do Estado. Este artigo examina, em vez disso, o debate sobre os “níveis de negociação”: se os sindicatos negros emergentes exigissem negociar no nível da fábrica, onde eles teriam garantida a força do chão de fábrica por meio da organização e da prática democrática, ou buscariam os benefícios das estruturas corporativas de negociação, que há muito tempo privilegiava trabalhadores brancos? A eventual tendência para o corporativismo, eu argumento, imprimiu o caráter do movimento trabalhista sul-africano na era pós-apartheid. Um desejo compreensível de exercer influência na política econômica nacional corroeu a tradição de controle dos trabalhadores, a democracia do chão de fábrica e o sindicalismo de luta que os sindicatos negros haviam forjado durante as décadas de 1970 e 1980.


Palavras-chave


Sindicatos; História; África do Sul; Negociação coletiva; Corporativismo; Relações de trabalho na indústria; Leis trabalhistas; Apartheid

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5007/1984-9222.2020.e72467

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