Escapando da escravidão pelo mar na véspera da Guerra Civil Americana: uma história do trabalho

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5007/1984-9222.2022.e83554

Palavras-chave:

História a partir de baixo, abolicionismo, escravidão, trabalho, fugitivos, costa marítima

Resumo

Este artigo explora um tópico relativamente negligenciado nas histórias da escravidão e do abolicionismo nos Estados Unidos às vésperas da Guerra Civil. Como as pessoas escravizadas escapavam por mar e, mais especificamente, como o litoral era uma faixa de luta sobre a escravidão, entre aproximadamente 1820 e 1865. O artigo trata de quatro temas centrais: navios, comércio e cidades portuárias em meio à ascensão do capitalismo atlântico; vida e trabalho no litoral; esforços para controlar as docas a partir de cima; e as rotas e destinos traçados pelos fugitivos e seus aliados. Marinheiros, trabalhadores portuários, artesãos, carregadores, quitandeiras e fugitivos do mar cooperaram e conspiraram em uma “esfera pública” alternativa, usando conexões dentro da classe trabalhadora marítima para liberar uma força poderosa, embora pouco compreendida, do abolicionismo dos de baixo.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Marcus Rediker, University of Pittsburgh

PhD in History from the University of Pennsylvania. Distinguished Professor of Atlantic History at the University of Pittsburgh.

Referências

ASHTON, Susanna (ed.). I Belong to South Carolina: South Carolina Slave Narratives. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2010.

ASHTON, Susanna. Re-Collecting Jim. Commonplace: The Journal of Early American Life, n. 15, 2014.

BALL, Charles. Slavery in the United States: A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Charles Ball. New York: John S. Taylor, 1837.

BEARSE, Austin. Reminiscences of Fugitive Slave Law Days in Boston. Boston: Warren Richardson, 1880.

BLIGHT, David. Frederick Douglass: Prophet of Freedom. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2019.

BOGGER, Tommy L. Free Blacks in Norfolk, Virginia, 1790-1860. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1997.

CAMPBELL, Stanley W. The Slave Catchers: Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law, 1850-1860. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.

CAMPLING, Liam; COLÁS, Alejandro. Capitalism and the Sea: The Maritime Factor in the Making of the Modern World. London: Verso, 2021.

CECELSKI, David S. The Waterman’s Song: Slavery and Freedom in Maritime North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

CLAVIN, Matthew J. Aiming for Pensacola: Fugitive Slaves on the Atlantic and Southern Frontiers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2015.

DELBANCO, Andrew. The War before the War: Fugitive Slaves and the Struggle for America’s Soul of from the American Revolution to the Civil War. New York: Penguin Press, 2018.

DOUGLASS, Frederick. Life and times of Frederick Douglass. 1883, rev. 1892.

DOUGLASS, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. Boston, 1845.

DREW, Benjamin. A North-Side View of Slavery: The Refugee, or the Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada, Related by Themselves, with an Account of the History and Condition of the Colored Population of Upper Canada. Boston, 1856.

FONER, Eric. Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad. New York: Norton, 2015.

GROVER, Kathryn. The Fugitive's Gibraltar: Escaping Slaves and Abolitionism in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.

HADDEN, Sally E. Slave Patrols: Law and Violence in Virginia and the Carolinas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

HAHN, Steven. The Political Worlds of Slavery and Freedom. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.

HALL, N.A.T. Maritime Maroons: ‘Grand Marronage’ from the Danish West Indies. William and Mary Quarterly, v. 42, n. 4, p. 476-498, 1985.

HARRIS, Leslie M. In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

HIGGINSON, Steve; WAILEY, Tony. Edgy Cities. Liverpool, 2006.

HODGES, Graham Russell Gao. David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

JACKSON, John Andrew. The Experience of a Slave in South Carolina. London: Passmore and Alabaster, 1862.

JACOBS, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written by Herself. Boston, 1861.

JAMES, C.L.R. Notes on Dialectics: Hegel, Marx, Lenin. London: Alison and Busby, 1980.

KNIGHT, Franklin W.; LISS, Peggy K. (eds). Atlantic Port Cities: Economy, Culture, and Society in the Atlantic World, 1650-1850. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991.

NASH, Gary B. The Urban Crucible: Social Change, Political Consciousness, and the Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge, MA, 1979.

NEWBY-ALEXANDER, Cassandra L. Virginia Waterways and the Underground Railroad. Charleston, SC: History Press, 2017.

OLSAVSKY, Jesse. “Fire and Sword will Affect More Good”: Runaways, Vigilance Committees, and the Rise of Revolutionary Abolitionism, 1835-1860. PhD dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 2019.

PHILLIPS, Christopher. Freedom’s Port: The African American Community of Baltimore, 1790-1860. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

PRICE, Jacob. Economic Function and the Growth of American Port Towns in the Eighteenth Century. Perspectives in American History, v. 8, p. 121-186, 1974.

RAWICK, George. Working Class Self-Activity. Radical America, v. 3, n. 2, p. 23-31, 1969.

REDIKER, Marcus. Reflections on the Motley Crew as Port City Proletariat. International Review of Social History, v. 64, n. 27, p. 255-262, 2019.

ROLAND, Alex W.; BOLSTER, Jeffrey; KEYSSAR, Alexander. The Way of the Ship: America's Maritime History Reenvisoned, 1600-2000. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008.

SCHOEPPNER, Michael A. Moral Contagion: Black Atlantic Sailors, Citizenship, and Diplomacy in Antebellum America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

SCHWEININGER, Loren ed. The Southern Debate over Slavery, Volume 1: Petitions to Southern legislatures, 1778-1864. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001.

SCOTT, Julius. The Common Wind: Afro-American Currents in the Age of the Haitian Revolution. New York: Verso, 2018.

STILL, William. The Underground Railroad: A Record of Facts, Authentic Narrative, Letters, &c., Narrating the Hardships, Hair-breadth Escapes and Death Struggles of the Slaves in their efforts of Freedom. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1872.

THOMPSON, Michael D. Working on Dock of the Bay: Labor and Enterprise in an Antebellum Southern Port. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2015.

TOMICH, Dale. The Second Slavery and World Capitalism: A Perspective for Historical Inquiry. International Review of Social History, v. 63, n. 3, p. 477-501, 2018.

VALONE, Stephen J. William Henry Seward, the Virginia Controversy, and the Anti-Slavery Movement, 1839-1841. Afro-Americans in New York Life & History, v. 31, n. 1, p. 65-80, 2007.

WALKER, Timothy D. ed. Sailing to Freedom: Maritime Dimensions of the Underground Railroad. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2021.

WELLS, Jonathan Daniel. The Kidnapping Club: Wall Street, Slavery, and Resistance on the Eve of the Civil War. New York: Bold Type Books, 2020.

Publicado

2022-06-20

Como Citar

REDIKER, M. Escapando da escravidão pelo mar na véspera da Guerra Civil Americana: uma história do trabalho. Revista Mundos do Trabalho, Florianópolis, v. 14, p. 1-18, 2022. DOI: 10.5007/1984-9222.2022.e83554. Disponível em: https://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/mundosdotrabalho/article/view/83554. Acesso em: 10 ago. 2022.

Edição

Seção

Dossiê: Os mundos do trabalho nas rotas marítimas da liberdade