Cannabis sativa e gravidez: uma revisão

Iran Augusto Neves da Silva, Daiana Aparecida Souza Lima, Sarah Gomes de Menezes Benevenuto, Mariana Matera Veras

Resumo


Cannabis sativa, ou maconha, é a droga de abuso mais utilizada durante a gravidez. A gravidez é um período em que ocorrem mudanças fisiológicas consideráveis na mãe e, como resultado dessas mudanças, o feto pode ser diretamente afetado. A droga apresenta em sua composição uma gama de compostos químicos considerados medicinais ou psicoativos, os canabinoides. Um dos mais conhecidos é o tetrahidrocanabinol (Δ9-THC), componente psicoativo capaz de atravessar a barreira placentária, atingindo o feto em desenvolvimento. O uso crônico de C. sativa na gravidez pode resultar em diminuição da perfusão uteroplacentária, restrição do crescimento intra-uterino (RCIU) e distúrbios comportamentais nos fetos. Os canabinoides podem causar alguns distúrbios nos órgãos reprodutores dos usuários até atingir o feto. Em um estudo, 4.000 gestantes usuárias da droga apresentaram aumento na incidência de perdas gestacionais, conceptos com baixo peso e pequenos para a idade gestacional. Além do baixo peso nos neonatos, a droga aumenta o risco de complicações durante o parto e um desenvolvimento cognitivo tardio nos lactentes. Muitas controvérsias giram em torno do tema C. sativa e seus efeitos sobre a saúde, sendo necessário abranger a discussão de políticas públicas sobre a liberação do uso de drogas ilícitas levando em consideração evidências científicas.


Palavras-chave


Droga de abuso; Desenvolvimento fetal; Maconha; Placenta

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2019v32n2p1

Direitos autorais 2019 Daiana Aparecida Souza Lima, Iran Augusto Neves da Silva, Sarah Gomes de Menezes Benevenuto, Mariana Matera Veras

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Biotemas. UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil, eISSN 2175-7925

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