Os Estados Unidos e as negociações sobre a criação do posto de Alto Comissário para Direitos Humanos da ONU

Matheus Carvalho Hernandez

Resumo


A literatura sobre direitos humanos normalmente credita às mobilizações das ONGs lideradas pela Anistia Internacional a aprovação consensual, em 1993, da criação do posto de Alto Comissário para Direitos Humanos da ONU, o principal responsável por direitos humanos dentro da ONU. Contudo, há outro importante ponto a ser considerado para compreender essa aprovação: a mudança de posição dos EUA em relação à pauta. Durante a Guerra Fria, os EUA eram apenas discretos apoiadores da proposta em razão da priorização dos cálculos geopolíticos do período. Terminada a Guerra Fria, a sistemática oposição da URSS à criação do posto desapareceu. Assim, a administração Clinton, que pretendia se mostrar como a principal responsável por uma mudança positiva na política externa de direitos humanos do país em comparação à antecessora H. Bush, tornou-se a principal apoiadora da criação do posto de Alto Comissário para Direitos Humanos da ONU. O objetivo deste artigo não é negar a relevância das mobilizações das ONGs em 1993, mas apenas evidenciar como aquele contexto histórico criou as condições para que os EUA pragmaticamente assumissem a liderança da proposta.


Palavras-chave


EUA; ONU; Direitos Humanos; Alto Comissário para Direitos Humanos da ONU

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Referências


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-7976.2017v24n38p286

Direitos autorais 2019 Matheus Carvalho Hernandez

Esboços: histórias em contextos globais - ISSN da versão impressa 1414-722x (cessou em 2008) e ISSN eletrônico 2175-7976 - Florianópolis - SC - Brasil