Tricontinentalism before the Cold War? Mexico City’s anti-imperialist internationalism




This article examines how anti-imperialist thought in Mexico City inspired internationalism in the 1920s. It uses the concept of “tricontinentalism” to refer to the idea that Latin America, Africa, and Asia should stand in solidarity with each other and argues that tricontinentalist thinking originated not in the Cold War, but in the aftermath of the First World War. The Mexican and the Russian Revolution had demonstrated that radical social change was imaginable. Together with the First World War, which for many in the Americas signaled the demise of European global hegemony, these revolutions represented a new era of political possibilities as well as a tectonic shift in global politics. Consequently, many anti-imperialists in Mexico looked to “the East”, drawing inspiration from the anticolonial revolutions in Africa and Asia. The central question of this article is how anti-imperialist political activists, intellectuals, and artists engaged in tricontinental thinking by writing about China and Morocco. The examined transnational interactions constitute a radical version of an imagined internationalism in the 1920s.


ABD EL-KRIM. Mensaje de Abd El-Krim a los pueblos de la América Latina. Repertorio Americano, San José, Costa Rica. Tomo X, n. 16, p. 243, 29 June 1925. (Renovación, Buenos Aires).

ADAS, Michael. Contested hegemony: the Great War and the Afro-Asian assault on the civilizing mission ideology. Journal of World History, Honolulu, v. 15, n. 1, p. 31-63, 2004.

AYDIN, Cemil. The politics of anti-westernism in Asia: visions of World Order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian thought. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

BERGEL, Martin. El Oriente desplazado: los intelectuales y los orígnenes del tercermundismo en la Argentina. Bernal: Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, 2015.

CARR, Barry. ‘Across seas and borders’: charting the webs of radical internationalism in the Circum-Caribbean. In: RONIGER, Luis; GREEN, James N.; YANKELEVICH, Pablo (ed.). Exile and the Politics of Exclusion in the Americas. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2012, p. 217-240.

CARR, Barry. Mexico City: emporium of Latin American exiles and revolutionaries in the 1920s. In: FAULHABER, Charles B. (ed.). 1810–1910–2010: Mexico’s unfinished revolutions. Berkeley: Bancroft Library, 2011. p. 25-40.

CARRILLO, Rafael. La próxima ofensiva en Marruecos. El Libertador, México, D. F., n. 8, 3 Apr. 1926.

CHAO ROMERO, Robert. The Chinese in Mexico, 1882–1940. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2010.

DEVÉS-VALDÉS, Eduardo. Pensamiento periférico: Asia, África, América Latina, Eurasia y más. Santiago: Ariadna Ediciones, 2017.

EL IMPERIALISMO en China. El Libertador, México, D. F., n. 4, 1 July 1926.

EL MACHETE, México, D. F., n. 62, first fortnight of April 1927.

ESEDEBE, P. Olisanwuche. Pan-Africanism: The Idea and Movement, 1776–1991. Washington: Howard University Press, 1994.

ESTRADA, Ulises; SUÁREZ, Luís (ed.). Rebelión tricontinental: Las voces de los condenados de la tierra de África, Asia y América Latina. La Habana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales; Ocean Sur, 2007.

GAMIO, Manuel. Forjando Patria. México, D. F.: Editorial Porrúa, 1960 [1916].

GOEBEL, Michael. Anti-Imperial Metropolis: Interwar Paris and the Seeds of Third World Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

GOEBEL, Michael. Geopolitics, transnational solidarity or diaspora nationalism? the global career of M.N. Roy, 1915–1930. European Review of History, London, v. 21, n. 4, p. 485-499, 2014.

GRONBECK-TEDESCO, John A. The left in transition: the Cuban Revolution in US third world politics. Journal of Latin American Studies, Cambridge, v. 40, p. 651-673, 2008.

GRUZINSKI, Serge. What Time is it There? America and Islam at the dawn of Modern Times. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

HART, John Mason. Revolutionary Mexico: the coming and process of the Mexican Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

HAYA DE LA TORRE, Víctor Raúl. El asesinato de un pueblo. El Libertador, México, D. F., n. 7, p. 6-7, Feb. 1926.

HAYA DE LA TORRE, Víctor Raúl. Hispano-Americanismos Literarios. El Libertador, México, D. F., n. 4, 16 July 1925.

HAYA DE LA TORRE, Víctor Raúl. Obras Completas. Lima: Juan Mejíca Baca, 1977. v. I.

HURWITZ, Jacobo. La esperanza amarilla. El Libertador, México, D. F., n. 12, 27-29 June, 1927.

KERSFFELD, Daniel. Contra el imperio: historia de la Liga Antiimperialista de las Américas. Mexico, D. F.: Siglo XXI Editores, 2012b.

KERSFFELD, Daniel. Rusos y Rojos: judíos comunistas en los tiempos de la Comintern. Buenos Aires: Capital Intelectual, 2012a.

KNIGHT, Alan. The Mexican Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. 2v.

KRAUTWALD, Fabian; LINDNER, Thomas; NAKAO, Sakiko. Fighting Marginality: The Global Moment of 1917–1919 and the Re-Imagination of Belonging. L ́Atelier du Centre de recherches historiques, no. 18, 2018.

LEAR, John. Workers, Neighbors, and Citizens: The Revolution in Mexico City. Lincoln: The University of Nebraska Press, 2001.

LENIN, Vladimir Ilyich. Imperialism, the highest stage of Capitalism. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1961 [1916].

LOS OBREROS de China contre el Imperialismo. El Libertador, México, D. F., n. 3, 2 June, 1925.

LOURO, Michele; STOLTE, Caroline; STREETS-SALTER, Heather; TANNOURYKARAM, Sana (ed.). The League Against Imperialism: Lives and Afterlives. Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2020.

MAHLER, Anne Garland. From the Tricontinental to the Global South: Race, Radicalism, and Transnational Solidarity. Durham: Duke University Press, 2018.

MARIÁTEGUI, José Carlos. Figuras y aspectos de la vida mundial: 1923–1925. Lima: Amauta, 1970.

MELGAR BAO, Ricardo. Vivir el exilio en la ciudad, 1928, V.R. Haya de la Torre y J. A. Mella. Mexico, D. F.: Taller Abierto, 2013.

MELLA, Julio Antonio. El Kuo Min Tang y la Revolución China, El Libertador, México, D. F., n. 8, 11 Apr. 1926.

MILLER, Nicola. Reinventing Modernity in Latin America: intellectuals imagine the future, 1900–1930. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

NEARING, Scott; FREEMAN, Joseph. Dollar diplomacy: a study in American Imperialism. New York: B.W. Huebsch, 1925.

PITMAN, Thea; STAFFORD, Andy. Introduction: transatlanticism and tricontinentalism. Journal of Transatlantic Studies, London, v. 7, n. 3, p. 197-207, 2009.

PRASHAD, Vijay. The Darker Nations: A People’s History of the Third World. New York: New Press, 2007.

RANGEL, Carlos. El tercermundismo. Caracas: Monte Ávila Editores, 1982.

REED, John. Speech at the Congress. In: PEARCE, Brian (ed.). Congress of the Peoples of the East: Baku, September 1920. Stenographic Report. Translated and annotated by Brian Pierce. London: New Park Publications, 1920.

RODRIGUEZ, Besenia. Beyond Nation: the formation of a tricontinental discourse. 2006. 462 p. Dissertation (PhD in African American and American Studies) – Department of African American Studies, Yale University, New Haven, 2006.

SEIDMAN, Sarah. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba. Journal of Transnational American Studies, Santa Barbara, v. 4, n. 2, p. 1-25, 2012.

SHAFFER, Kirwin R. Anarchists of the Caribbean: countercultural politics and transnational networks in the Age of Expansion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020.

SPENSER, Daniela. The Impossible Triangle: Mexico, Soviet Russia, and the United States in the 1920s. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999.

STALIN, Iósif. La Verdad sobre China. El Machete, México, D. F., n. 65,. 3 June 1927

TENORIO-TRILLO, Mauricio. Latin America: the power and allure of an idea. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2017.

UN APLAUSO a Abd el-Krim. La Antorcha, México, D. F., n. 33, 16 May 1925.

YANKELEVICH, Pablo. La Revolución Mexicana en América Latina: intereses políticos e itinerarios intelectuales. Mexico, D. F.: Instituto Mora, 2003.

YOUNG, Robert C. J. Postcolonialism: an historical introduction. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001.




Como Citar

Lindner, T. K. (2021). Tricontinentalism before the Cold War? Mexico City’s anti-imperialist internationalism. Esboços: Histórias Em Contextos Globais, 28(48), 327–345.



Dossiê "Internacionalismo e história global"