Contra a ética da ecologia do medo: por uma mudança nos objetivos de intervenção na natureza

Autores

  • Oscar Horta Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2017v16n1p165

Palavras-chave:

Antropocentrismo, Ecologia do medo, Especismo, Intervenção

Resumo

Seres humanos intervêm frequentemente na natureza por razões antropocêntricas ou ambientalistas. Um exemplo de intervenção consiste na reintrodução de lobos em áreas previamente habitadas por eles com a finalidade de se criar o que é conhecido como “ecologia do medo”. Na primeira parte deste artigo discutem-se as razões que têm sido utilizadas em favor dessa medida, e explica-se por que são incompatíveis com um enfoque não especista. Para tal, expõem-se os motivos pelos quais tal medida prejudica notavelmente animais como os cervos, sem tampouco ser benéfica para os próprios lobos. Em seguida, argumenta-se que, se abandonamos uma perspectiva especista, devemos mudar por completo o modo pelo qual intervimos na natureza. Em vez de intervir por motivos ecologistas ou antropocêntricos, nosso objetivo ao fazê-lo deve ser o de reduzir os danos sofridos pelos animais não humanos. A visão idílica segundo a qual os animais não humanos vivem vidas paradisíacas na natureza é completamente incorreta, e de fato há fortes razões para considerar que o sofrimento e a morte prematura prevalecem de forma clara sobre a felicidade desses animais. Isso faz com que seja ainda mais importante que nosso objetivo seja melhorar sua situação e dar-lhes nossa ajuda, em vez de causar-lhes danos. Isso entra em conflito de maneira significativa com alguns ideais ecologistas fundamentais cuja defesa não é compatível com a consideração dos interesses dos animais não humanos.

 

Biografia do Autor

Oscar Horta, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

Professor na Faculdade de Filosofia da Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

Referências

ARISTÓTELES. Política. Tradução de Manuela García Valdés. Madri: Tecnos, 2004.

BBC NEWS. Call for return of Scottish wolves. BBC, 17 set. 1999. Disponível em: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sci/tech/specials/sheffield_99/450318.stm. Acesso em: 29 mar. 2015.

———. Call for wolves to be reintroduced. BBC, 25 jun. 2002. Disponível em: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/2065794.stm. Acesso em: 29 mar. 2015.

———. Call for serious debate on wolf. BBC, 2 mar. 2008. Disponível em: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/highlands_and_islands/7268765.stm. Acesso em: 29 mar. 2015.

BEYER, H. L.; MERRILL, E. H.; VARLEY, N.; BOYCE, M. S. Willow on Yellowstone’s northern range: evidence for a trophic cascade? Ecological Applications, v. 17, p. 1563-1571, 2007.

BESCHTA, R. L.; RIPPLE, W. J. Recovering riparian plant communities with wolves in northern Yellowstone, USA. Restoration Ecology, v. 18, p. 380-389, 2010.

BLANCO, J. C. Large carnivore damage in Spain. Carnivore Damage Prevention News, v. 1, p. 5–6, 2000.

BONNARDEL, Y. Contre l’apartheid des espèces: À propos de la prédation et de l’opposition entre écologie et libération animale. Les cahiers antispécistes, v. 14, 2005. Disponível em: http://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/article.php3?id_article=103. Acesso em: 29 mar. 2015.

CALLICOTT, J. B. In defense of the land ethic: Essays in environmental philosophy. Albany: State University of New York, 1989.

______. The case against moral pluralism. Environmental Ethics, v. 12, p. 99–124, 1990.

______. The land ethic. In: JAMIESON, D. A Companion to Environmental Philosophy, Oxford: Blackwell, 2000. p. 204–217.

CARRUTHERS, P. The animal issue: moral theory in practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

CHRISTIANSON, D.; CREEL, S. A nutritionally mediated risk effect of wolves on elk. Ecology, v. 91, p. 1184–1191, 2010.

CLUTTON-BROCK, T. H.; COULSON, T.; MILNER, J. M. Red deer stocks in the Highlands of Scotland. Nature, v. 429, p. 261–262, 2004.

COLYVAN, M. Population Ecology. In: SARKAR, S. (Ed.); PLUTYNSKI, A. (Ed.) A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. p. 301–320

COWEN, T. Policing nature. Environmental Ethics, v. 25, p. 169–182, 2003.

CREEL, S.; WINNIE, J. A.; CHRISTIANSON, D. Glucocorticoid stress hormones and the effect of predation risk on elk reproduction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 106, p. 12388–12393, 2009.

CUNHA, L. C.; GARMENDIA, G. Por que os danos naturais deveriam ser considerados de igual importância moral? Synesis, v. 5, p. 32-53, 2013. Disponível em: http://seer.ucp.br/seer/index.php?journal=synesis&page=article&op=view&pat h%5B%5D=278&path%5B%5D=223. Acesso em: 6 jul. 2015.

DESCARTES, R. Discours de la méthode. Paris: Vrin, 1930.

DORADO, D. Una aproximación bibliográfica al problema del mal en la naturaleza. Revista de Bioética y Derecho, v. 26, p. 55–59, 2012. Disponível em: http://www.ub.edu/fildt/revista/pdf/rbyd26_animal.pdf. Acesso em: 6 jul. 2015.

FARIA, C. Muerte entre las flores: el conflicto entre el ecologismo y la defensa de los animales no humanos. Viento Sur, v. 125, p. 67–76, 2012. Disponível em: http://www.vientosur.info/IMG/pdf/VS125_C_Faria_Muerte_entre_flores.pdf. Acesso em: 8 jul. 2015.

______. Differential obligations towards others in need. Astrolabio, v. 15, p. 242–246, 2013. Disponível em: http://www.raco.cat/index.php/Astrolabio/article/viewFile/275058/363046. Acesso em: 8 jul. 2015.

FARIA, C.; PAEZ, E. Animals in Need: the Problem of Wild Animal Suffering and Intervention in Nature. Relations. Beyond Anthropocentrism, v. 3, n. 1, p. 7-13, 2015. Disponível em: http://www.ledonline.it/index.php/Relations/article/view/816/660. Acesso em: 11 jul. 2015.

FINK, Ch. K. The predation argument. Between the Species, v. 5, 2005. Disponível em: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1041&context= bts. Acesso em: 29 mar. 2015.

HADLEY, J. The duty to aid nonhuman animals in dire need, Journal of Applied Philosophy, v. 23, p. 445-451, 2006.

HARGROVE, E. Foundations of wildlife protection attitudes. In: HARGROVE, E.C. (Ed.) The Animal Rights/Environmental Ethics Debate: The Environmental Perspective. Albany: State University of New York, 1992. p. 151–83

HEDRICK, P. W.; FREDRICKSON, R. J. Captive breeding and the reintroduction of Mexican and red wolves. Molecular Ecology, v. 17, p. 344–350, 2008.

HORTA, O. Zoopolis, intervention, and the state or nature. Law, Ethics and Philosophy, v. 1, p. 113–125, 2013. Disponível em: http://www.raco.cat/index.php/LEAP/article/view/294784/383317. Acesso em: 7 jul. 2015.

______. O problema do mal natural: bases evolutivas da prevalência do desvalor. Revista Brasileira de Direito Animal, v. 10, p. 111-135, 2015 [2011]], tradução de Luciano Carlos Cunha. https://www.academia.edu/30695366/O_problema_do_mal_natural_bases_evolutivas_da_preval%C3%AAncia_do_desvalor. Acesso em: 11 nov. 2016.

______. Igualitarismo, igualação por baixo, antropocentrismo e valor da vida. Synesis, v. 8, p. 216–239, 2016, tradução de Luciano Carlos Cunha. http://seer.ucp.br/seer/index.php?journal=synesis&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=968&path%5B%5D=602. Acesso em: 3 fev. 2017.

LAUNDRE, J. W.; HERNANDEZ, L.; RIPPLE, W. J. The landscape of fear: Ecological implications of being afraid. The Open Ecology Journal, v. 3, p. 1–7, 2010.

LEOPOLD, A. Una ética de la tierra. Madri: Los libros de la Catarata, 2000.

LINKOLA, P. Can life prevail?: A radical approach to the environmental crisis. Londres: Integral Tradition Publishing, 2009.

MANNING, A. D.; GORDON, I. J.; RIPPLE, W. J. Restoring landscapes of fear with wolves in the Scottish Highlands. Biological Conservation, v. 142, p. 2314–2321, 2009.

MARTÍNEZ GUTIÉRREZ, P. G. Detección de áreas potenciales para la reintroducción del lobo mexicano (Canis lupus baileyi) en México. Monografia (Graduação). Xalapa, Instituto de Ecología, 2007.

MECH, L. D. The challenge and opportunity of recovering wolf populations, Conservation Biology, v. 9, p. 270–278, 1995.

______. Is science in danger of sanctifying the wolf? Biological Conservation, v. 150, p.143-149, 2012.

MORGAN, J. Crying wolf, now with added bite. The Herald, 1 fev. 2007. Disponível em: http://www.heraldscotland.com/crying-wolf-now-with-added-bite- 1.839418. Acesso em: 30 mar. 2015.

MORRIS, M. C.; THORNHILL, R. H. Animal liberationist responses to non-anthropogenic animal suffering. Worldviews, v. 10, p. 355–379, 2006.

MOSQUERA, J. The Harm They Inflict When Values Conflict. Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, v. 3, n. 1, p. 65-77, 2015. Disponível em: http://www.ledonline.it/index.php/Relations/article/view/822/664. Acesso em: 11 jul. 2015.

NÆSS, A. The selected works of Arne Næss. Deep ecology of wisdom. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. v. 10

NG, Y.-K. Towards welfare biology: Evolutionary economics of animal consciousness and suffering. Biology and Philosophy, v. 10, p. 255–85, 1995.

NILSEN, E. B., MILNER-GULLAND, E. J.; SCHOFIELD, L.; MYSTERUD, A.; STENSETH, N. C.; COULSON, T. Wolf reintroduction to Scotland: public attitudes and consequences for red deer management. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Series B, Biological Sciences, v. 274, p. 995–1002, 2007.

NORTON, B. G. Why preserve natural variety? Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

NUSSBAUM, M. C. Frontiers of Justice: Disability, nationality, species membership. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006.

O’CONNELL, S. Back from the dead: could wolves and wild boar roam Britain again? The Independent, 10 abr. 2008. Disponível em: http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/back-from-the-dead-could-wolves-and-wild-boar-roam-britain-again-806900.html. Acesso em 30 mar. 2015.

OLIVIER, D. Pourquoi je ne suis pas écologiste. Les cahiers antispécistes, v. 14, 1993. Disponível em: http://www.cahiers-antispecistes.org/spip.php?article52. Acesso em: 30 mar. 2015.

PIANKA, E. R. On r and K selection. American Naturalist, v. 104, p. 592– 597, 1970.

PREISSER, E. L.; BOLNICK, D. I.; BENARD, M. F. Scared to death? The effects of intimidation and consumption in predator–prey interactions. Ecology, v. 86, p. 501–509, 2005.

PRUGH, L. R.; STONER, C. J.; EPPS, C. W.; BEAN, W. T.; RIPPLE, W. J.; LALIBERTE, A. S.; BRASHARES, J. S. The rise of the mesopredator. Bioscience, v. 59, p. 779–791, 2009.

REICHMANN, J. Evolution, animal ‘rights’ and the environment. Washington: The Catholic University of America Press, 2000.

RIPPLE, W. J.; BESCHTA, R. L. Wolves and the ecology of fear: Can predation risk structure ecosystems? BioScience, v. 54, p. 123–138, 2004.

______. Restoring Yellowstone’s aspen with wolves, Biological Conservation, v. 138, p. 514–519, 2007.

RIPPLE, W. J.; LARSEN, E. J. Historic Aspen recruitment, elk, and wolves in Northern Yellowstone National Park, USA. Biological Conservation, vol. 95, p. 361–370, 2000.

SAGOFF, M. Animal liberation and environmental ethics: Bad marriage, quick divorce. Osgoode Hall Law Journal, v. 22, p. 297-307, 1984.

SAPONTZIS, S. Predation. Ethics and Animals, v. 5, p. 27–38, 1984. Disponível em: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1220&context= ethicsandanimals. Acesso em: 11 jul. 2015.

SCANLON, Th. M. What we owe to each other. Cambridge: Belknap, 1998.

SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT RURAL AND ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS DIRECTORATE, Agriculture facts and figures. Edimburgo: Scottish Government Rural and Environment Research and Analysis Directorate, The Scottish Government, 2010. Disponível em: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/314320/0099836.pdf. Acesso em: 30 mar. 2015.

SHELTON, J.-A. Killing animals that don’t fit in: Moral dimensions of habitat restoration. Between the Species, v. 13, n. 4, p. 1–21, 2004. Disponível em: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1048&context= bts. Acesso em: 30 mar. 2015.

SINGER, F. J. Effects of grazing by wild ungulates in Yellowstone National Park, Technical Report NPS/NRYELL/NRTR/96-01. USDI NPS, Natural Resource Program Center, Denver, 1996.

SMITH, D. W. Ten years of Yellowstone wolves, 1995–2005. Yellowstone Science, v. 13, p. 7–33, 2005.

SMITH, D. W.; STAHLER, D. R.; ALBERS, E.; METZ, M.; WILLIAMSON, L.; EHLERS, N.; CASSIDY, K.; IRVING, J.; RAYMOND, R.; ALMBERG, E.; MCINTYRE, R. Yellowstone wolf project: Annual report, 2008. Yellowstone National Park: Yellowstone Center for Resources, National Park Service, 2009.

SMITH, J. A. A question of pain in invertebrates. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Journal, v. 33, p. 25–32, 1991. Disponível em: http://ilarjournal.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/1-2/25.full. Acesso em: 7 jul. 2015.

SÖZMEN, B. I. Harm in the wild: Facing non-human suffering in nature. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, v. 16, p. 1075–1088, 2013.

STEARNS, S. C. The evolution of life histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

TAYLOR, P. Respect for nature. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

TOMASIK, B. The Importance of Wild-Animal Suffering. Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, v. 3, n. 2, p. 133–152, 2015.

TORRES ALDAVE, M. De lobos y ovejas: ¿les debemos algo a los animales salvajes? Ágora: Papeles de Filosofía, v. 30, p. 77–98, 2011. Disponível em: https://dspace.usc.es/bitstream/10347/7397/3/79-100.pdf. Acesso em: 8 jul. 2015.

VANGUARDIA, Son envenenados lobos liberados en Sonora. Vanguardia, 21 fev. 2012. Disponível em: http://www.vanguardia.com.mx/sonenvenenadoslobosliberadosensonora-1223385.html. Acesso em: 30 mar. 2015.

VARNER, G. Biocentric individualism. In: SCHMIDTZ, D. (Ed.); WILLOT, E. (Ed.) Environmental ethics: What really matters, what really works. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. p. 108–120

WAGNER, F. H; HAMILTON, W. L. (Colab.); KEIGLEY, R. B. (Colab.) Yellowstone’s Destabilized Ecosystem: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict. Nova York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

WATSON FEATHERSTONE, A. The wild heart of the Highlands. Ecos, v. 18, p. 48–61, 1997.

WHEWELL, W. Lectures on the history of moral philosophy in England. Londres: John Parker, 1852.

WHITE, P. J.; SMITH, D. W.; DUFFIELD, J. W.; JIMENEZ, M.; MCENEANEY, T.; PLUMB, G.; Yellowstone after wolves: Environmental impact statement predictions and ten-year appraisals. Yellowstone Science, v. 13, p. 34–41, 2005.

WILSON, C. J. Could we live with reintroduced large carnivores in the UK? Mammal Review, v. 34, p. 211–232, 2004.

ZAMORA BÁRCENAS, D. F. Análisis de viabilidad poblacional del lobo mexicano (Canis lupus baileyi) en Sierra Madre Occidental. Monografia (Graduação). Querétaro, Universidade Autônoma de Querétaro, 2011.

Downloads

Publicado

2017-08-30

Edição

Seção

Tradução