Toward a Capability-Based Account of Intergenerational Justice
ResumoIn this paper, I will draw on the capabilities approach to social justice and human development as advanced, among others, by Martha Nussbaum, and seek to provide some theoretical resources for better understanding our obligations to future persons. My argumentative strategy is as follows: First, I’ll briefly reconstruct a capabilities approach to justice, examining this sort of view’s normative foundations and methodology. Using Nussbaum’s capabilities list as a basis, I will argue that various social and environmental functions which are threatened by climate change are crucial with respect to enabling morally and politically central capabilities for both current and future people. Here, I will draw on recent work by Breena Holland to establish the notion of a sustainable climate system as a necessary precondition for the enablement and protection of these entitlements. Then, I’ll extend this strategy to argue that the capabilities approach provides a uniquely useful threshold conception of harm to inform our thinking about our relationship to our posterity. It is my hope that the capabilities approach so applied can give us a novel way of understanding our responsibilities toward future people in a time where such an understanding is both unfortunately lacking and increasingly dire. Finally, I will discuss some implications of a capability-based account in the intergenerational context and some justifications for applying the approach in this way. Ultimately, I submit that this sort of view seems more well-fitted to this context than other approaches (e.g., contractarianism and consequentialism), and that it offers a unique vehicle for understanding our relations and obligations to future people.
Anand, Sudhir, and Amartya Sen. 2000. "Human Development and Economic Sustainability." World Development 28 (12).
Attas, Daniel. 2009. "A Transgenerational Difference Principle." In Intergenerational Justice, edited by Axel Gosseries and Lukas Meyer. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Bertram, Christopher. 2009. "Exploitation and Intergenerational Justice." In Intergenerational Justice, edited by Axel Gosseries and Lukas Meyer. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Broome, John. 2012. Climate Matters: Ethics in a Warming World. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
DARA. 2012. Climate Vulnerability Monitor. Madrid, Spain: Development Research Associates (DARA).
FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, and WHO. 2017. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017: Building Resilience for Peace and Food Security. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
Gardiner, Stephen. 2009. "A Contract on Future Generations?" In Intergenerational Justice, edited by Axel Gosseries and Lukas Meyer. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Georgakakos, Aris, Paul Fleming, Michael Dettinger, Christa Peters-Lidard, Therese Richmond, Ken Reckhow, Kathleen White, and David Yates. 2014. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program.
Heltberg, Rasmus, and Misha Bonch-Osmolovskiy. 2011. Mapping Vulnerability to Climate Change. In World Bank Policy Research Paper 5554. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Heyd, David. 2009. "A Value or an Obligation? Rawls on Justice to Future Generations." In Intergenerational Justice, edited by Axel Gosseries and Lukas Meyer. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Heyward, Clare. 2011. "Climate Justice and the Capabilities Approach." Maitreyee: E-Bulletin of the Human Development and Capability Association 18:8-11.
Holland, Breena. 2008. "Justice and the Environment in Nussbaum's “Capabilities Approach”: Why Sustainable Ecological Capacity Is a Meta-Capability." Political Research Quarterly 61 (2):319-332.
Holland, Breena. 2012. "Environment as Meta-Capability: Why a Dignified Human Life Requires a Stable Climate System." In Ethical Adaptation to Climate Change: Human Virtues of the Future, edited by Allen Thompson and Jeremy Bendik-Keymer, 145-164. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Huemer, Michael. 2008. "In Defense of Repugnance." Mind 117 (468):899-933.
ICC. 2005. Petition to Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Seeking Relief from Violations Resulting from Global Warming Caused by Acts and Omissions of the United States”.
IPCC. 2014. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report, Contributions of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. edited by R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer. Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Kant, Immanuel. 2011. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Translated by Mary Gregor. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kessler, Ronald C., Sandro Galea, Michael J. Gruber, Nancy A. Sampson, Robert J. Ursano, and Simon Wessely. 2008. "Trends in Mental Illness and Suicidality After Hurricane Katrina." Molecular Psychiatry 13 (4):374-384.
Keulartz, Jozef, and Jac. A.A. Swart. 2012. "Animal Flourishing and Capabilities in an Era of Global Change." In Ethical Adaptation to Climate Change: Human Virtues of the Future, edited by Allen Thompson and Jeremy Bendik-Keymer, 123-144. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lister, Matthew. 2013. "Who Are Refugees?" Law and Philosophy 32:645-671.
Lister, Matthew. 2014. "Climate Change Refugees." Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 17 (5):618-634.
Meyer, Lukas. 2003. "Past and Future: The Case for a Threshold Conception of Harm”." In Rights, Culture, and the Law: Themes from the Legal and Political Philosophy of Joseph Raz, edited by Lukas Meyer, Stanley Paulson and Thomas Pogge, 143-159. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Pres.
Meyer, Lukas. 2015. Intergenerational Justice. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Moellendorf, Darrel. 2014. The Moral Challenge of Dangerous Climate Change. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Nolt, John. 2011. "Greenhouse Gas Emission and the Domination of Posterity." In The Ethics of Climate Change, edited by Denis Arnold, 60-76. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Nolt, John. 2014. "Casualties as a Moral Measure of Climate Change." Climatic Change 123 (3):347-358.
Nolt, John. 2015. Environmental Ethics for the Long Term. New York, NY: Routledge.
Nolt, John. 2017a. "Future Generations in Environmental Ethics." In The Oxford Handbook of Environmental Ethics, edited by Stephen Gardiner and Allen Thompson. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Nolt, John. 2017b. "Long Term Climate Justice."
Nussbaum, Martha. 1995. "Aristotle on Human Nature and the Foundations of Ethics." In World, Mind, and Ethics: Essays on the Philosophy of Bernard Williams, edited by J.E.G. Altham and Ross Harrison. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Nussbaum, Martha. 2000. Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, The Seeley Lectures. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Nussbaum, Martha. 2004. "Beyond ‘Compassion and Humanity’: Justice for Nonhuman Animals." In Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions, edited by Cass Sunstein and Martha Nussbaum, 299-320. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Nussbaum, Martha. 2006. Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nussbaum, Martha. 2011. Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
O’Neill, John. 1993. "Future Generations: Present Harms." Philosophy 68:35-51.
Overall, Christine. 2012. Why Have Children? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Parfit, Derek. 1984. Reasons and Persons. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Rawls, John. 1999. A Theory of Justice. Revised Edition ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Risse, Mathias. 2009. "The Right to Relocation: Disappearing Island Nations and Common Ownership of the Earth." Ethics and International Affairs 23 (3):281-300.
Rolston, Holmes. 1988. Environmental Ethics: Duties to and Values in the Natural World. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Schlosberg, David. 2012a. "Climate Justice and Capabilities: A Framework for Adaptation Policy." Ethics and International Affairs 26 (4):445-461.
Schlosberg, David. 2012b. "Justice, Ecological Integrity, and Climate Change." In Ethical Adaptation to Climate Change: Human Virtues of the Future, edited by Allen Thompson and Jeremy Bendik-Keymer, 165-184. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Sen, Amartya. 1995. Inequality Reexamined. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as Freedom. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Sen, Amartya. 2004. "Why We Should Preserve the Spotted Owl." London Review of Books 26 (3).
Sen, Amartya. 2009. The Idea of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Shue, Henry. 2014. Climate Justice: Vulnerability and Protection. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Singer, Peter. 2002. One World: The Ethics of Globalization. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
UNHCR. 1967. Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. edited by United Nations. Geneva, Switzerland.
WCED. 1987. Our Common Future: United Nations General Assembly Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. United Nations.
WHO. 2015. Quantitative Risk Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Selected Causes of Death, 2030s and 2050s. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization (WHO).
Wolff, Jonathan, and Avner De-Shalit. 2007. Disadvantage. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
This obra is licensed under a Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-SemDerivações 4.0 Internacional