Problemas no uso de empatia em investigações sobre o comportamento moral

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2021.e79970

Palavras-chave:

Moralidade, Empatia, Ressonância emocional, Preocupação empática, Tomada de perspectiva

Resumo

Os últimos anos apresentaram grande quantidade de pesquisas conceituais e empíricas sobre a empatia, além de um crescente interesse público pelo tema.  Nesse contexto, as esferas acadêmica e pública, diversas vezes, utilizam empatia e moralidade de forma intercambiável. Neste artigo, argumentar-se-á que existe uma relação entre ambas, porém com diferentes níveis de sobreposição. O problema está na amplitude contemporânea do conceito de empatia e sua consequente polissemia. Na construção do argumento, será relevante distinguir as diferentes características do fenômeno de vinculação emocional, em particular a ressonância emocional, a preocupação empática e a tomada de perspectiva. A distinção conceitual seguirá uma linha empírico-materialista: diferentes fenômenos corporificados necessitam de definições conceituais específicas. Afinal, cada um desses processos psicobiológicos influenciam juízos normativos de modo particular, incorrendo em formas de comportamentos sociais variados. A pluralidade de descobertas das ciências cognitivas ilustrará a relação complexa e ambígua acerca da definição de empatia. O ponto central para compreender essa relação consistirá na defesa de maior precisão conceitual acerca dos fenômenos de vinculação emocional associados à moralidade.

Biografia do Autor

Matheus de Mesquita Silveira, Professor da Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (R.S.)

Professor pesquisador no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia da Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS) e coordenador do grupo de pesquisa X-Lab: Philosophy, Ethology and Neurosciences. Possui doutorado em filosofia pela Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos com intercâmbio na City University of New York e, desde 2011, é pesquisador membro do International Wolf Center. Possui projeto em filosofia experimental sobre sistemas psicobiológicos de sociabilidade no comportamento social de primatas e canídeos. Mediante uma perspectiva emotivista, busca estabelecer a relação entre natureza e normatividade com foco na relação entre emoções e normatividade. A pesquisa se desenvolve mediante a investigação de conceitos filosóficos, análises experimentais sobre processos mentais e pesquisas de campo em etologia de lobos. E-mail: mdm.silveira@gmail.com.

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Publicado

2021-04-30