Ignorância moral e o papel das virtudes

Denis Coitinho

Resumo


O objetivo deste artigo é investigar o problema da ignorância moral, especificamente, quero saber em que medida uma ação errada cometida por um agente responsável pode ser apropriadamente censurada, considerando que a ação errada foi cometida por ignorância. Inicio com uma descrição do fenômeno da ignorância moral e uma definição. Posteriormente, investigo como a virtude epistêmica da autonomia e a virtude moral da justiça nos auxiliam a melhor lidar com o problema em questão a partir do escopo da responsabilidade coletiva. Por fim, ressalto os aspectos sociais deste tipo de ignorância, com destaque para os fenômenos do viés cognitivo e progresso moral. Proponho que a ignorância moral de um agente pode ser um alvo apropriado de censura apenas quando ele estiver justificado epistemicamente de forma moderada, mas não expressar as virtudes cidadãs da autonomia e justiça.

 


Palavras-chave


Ignorância moral; Censura; Autonomia; Justiça; Responsabilidade coletiva; Viés cognitivo

Texto completo:

PDF/A

Referências


ANNAS, J. Intelligent Virtue. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

ARISTOTLE. Nicomachean Ethics. Trans. Terence Irwin. 2a. Ed. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1999.

ARPALY, N. Umprinciped Virtue: An Inquiry Into Moral Agency. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

BARNARD, R. Introduction. In: BARNARD, R. (Ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Nelson Mandela. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 1-26.

BENSON, J. Who is the Autonomous Man? Philosophy, v. 58, n. 223, 1983, p. 5-17.

BUCHANAN, A.; POWELL, R. The Evolution of Moral Progress: A Biocultural Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

CHRISTMAN, J. Autonomy in Moral and Political Philosophy. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2015.

COATES, J.; TOGNAZZINI, N. The Contours of Blame. In: COATES, J.; TOGNAZZINI, N. (Eds.). Blame: Its Nature and Norms. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 3-26.

DA REDAÇÃO. Após 30 Anos, Japão Volta a Caçar Baleias para Fins Comerciais. Revista Veja, 1/07/2019.

EDWARDS, W. Conservatism in Human Information Processing. In: KAHNEMAN, D.; SLOVIC, P.; TVERSKY, A. (Eds.). Judgement Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. New York. Cambridge University Press, 1982, p. 359-369.

FISCHER, J.; RAVIZZA, M. Responsibility and Control: A Theory of Moral Responsibility. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

GETTIER, E. Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? Analysis, v. 23, n. 6, 1963, p. 121-123.

GOMES, L. Escravidão: Do Primeiro Leilão de Cativos em Portugal até a Morte de Zumbi dos Palmares, Volume I. Rio de Janeiro: Globo Livros, 2019.

GRISWOLD, C. Forgiveness: A Philosophical Exploration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

GUERRERO, A. Don't Know, Don't Kill: Moral Ignorance, Culpability, and Caution. Philosophical Studies, v. 136, 2007, p. 59-97.

HARMAN, E. Does Moral Ignorance Exculpate? Ratio, v. XXIV, 2011, p. 443-468.

KANT, I. An Answer to the Question What is Enlightenment? In: Practical Philosophy. Trans. Mary G. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

KANT, I. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Trans. Mary Gregor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

KRUEGER, J.; DUNNING, D. Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, v. 77, n. 6, 1999, p. 1121-1134.

LEBAR, M. (Ed.). Justice. The Virtues. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

MASON, E. Moral Ignorance and Blameworthiness. Philosophical Studies, v. 172, n. 11, 2015, p. 3037-3057.

McDONOUGH, F. Sophie Scholl: The Real Story of the Woman who Defied Hitler. Cheltenham: The History Press, 2009.

McDOWELL, J. Virtue and Reason. The Monist, v. 62, 1979, p. 331-350. Rep. In: CRISP, R.; SLOTE, M. (Eds.). Virtue Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 141-162.

NUSSBAUM, M. Anger and Forgiveness: Resentment, Generosity, Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

PEELS, R. Introduction. In: PEELS, R. (Ed.). Perspectives on Ignorance from Moral and Social Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 1-14.

PEELS, R. What is Ignorance? Philosophia, v. 38, 2010, p. 57-67.

PETTIT, P. The Common Mind: An Essay on Psychology, Society, and Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

PETTIT, P. The Birth of Ethics: Reconstructing the Role and Nature of Morality. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

RAWLS, J. A. Theory of Justice. Revised Edition. Cambridge, MAS: Harvard University Press, 1999.

RAWLS, J. A. The Sense of Justice. Philosophical Review, v. 72, n. 3, 1963, p. 281-305.

ROBERTS, R. C.; WOOD, W. J. Intellectual Virtues: An Essay in Regulative Epistemology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 257-285.

ROSEN, G. Skepticism about Moral Responsibility. Philosophical Perspectives, v. 18, 2004, p. 295-313.

SARTORIO, C. Ignorance, Alternative Possibilities, and the Epistemic Conditions for Responsibility. In: PEELS, R. (Ed.). Perspectives on Ignorance from Moral and Social Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 15-29.

SCANLON, T. Moral Dimensions: Permissibility, Meaning, Blame. Cambridge, MAS: Harvard University Press, 2010.

SMITH, A. The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Edited by RAPHAEL, D. D and MACFIE, A. L. The Glasgow Edition of the Works and Correspondence of Adam Smith. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976.

SMITH, Angela. Moral Blame and Moral Protest. In: COATES, J.; TOGNAZZINI, N. (Eds.). Blame: Its Nature and Norms. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 27-48.

SOSA, E. A. Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge. Volume I. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2007.

STRAWSON, P. Freedom and Resentment and Other Essays. New York: Routledge, 2008.

WATSON, G. Agency and Answerability. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2004.

WITTGENSTEIN, L. Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen). Third Ed. Trans. G. E. Anscombe. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2001.

WOLF, S. Sanity and the Metaphysics of Responsibility. In: WATSON, G. (Ed.). Free Will. Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 372-387.

ZIMMERMAN, M. Moral Responsibility and Ignorance. Ethics, v. 107, n. 3, 1997, p. 410-426.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2020v19n1p61

 

 

 

 

 

ethic@. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil, eISSN 1677-2954

Licença Creative Commons
This obra is licensed under a  Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-SemDerivações 4.0 Internacional