Obrigação, autoridade e demanda moral

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2020v19n2p386

Palavras-chave:

Autoridade, Atitudes reativas, Culpa moral, Obrigação, Normatividade

Resumo

O artigo discute a relação entre obrigação e autoridade moral a partir da pressuposição endossada por Peter Strawson, R. Jay Wallace e Stephen Darwall de que moralidade se constitui como um contexto normativo relacional. Depois de destacar o problema, analiso o papel preponderante que culpa moral e atitudes reativas negativas possuem para determinar aquilo que constitui a erradez moral de uma ação. Isso posto, abordarei os tipos de obrigação moral que podemos extrair deste modelo e sua relação com o que chamarei de coeficiente de autoridade. Por fim, questiono o resultado dessa relação e apresento considerações que desafiam essa estratégia.

Biografia do Autor

Evandro Barbosa, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, R.S.

Professor do Departamento e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel).

Referências

ADAMS, Robert Merrihew. Involuntary Sins. The Philosophical Review, Vol. 94, No. 1, p. 3-31, janeiro, 1985.

ANSCOMBE, Gertrude E. M. Modern Moral Philosophy. In: CRISP, R.; SLOTE, M. (Eds.). Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. p. 26–44.

ANSCOMBE, Gertrude E. M. Reasons, Relations, and Commands. Ethics, Vol. 118, p. 24– 36, 2007.

ANTON, Audrey L. Moral Responsibility and Desert of Praise and Blame. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2015.

AUDI, Robert. Reasons for action (Parte II, 24). In: SKORUPSKI, J. (Ed.) The Routledge Companion to Ethics. New York: Routledge, 2010.

BAKER, Derek. The Varieties of Normativity. In: MCPHERSON, T.; PLUNKETT, D. (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Metaethics. New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 567-581.

BARBOSA, Evandro. Obrigações deontológicas no contratualismo moral de Thomas Scanlon. In: BRESOLIN, K.; BARBOSA, E. (Eds.) Temas de Filosofia Política. Caxias do Sul, RS: Educs, 2017. p. 08–30.

BARBOSA, Evandro. O ponto de vista da segunda-pessoa, Parte I: uma fundamentação para o contratualismo? In: BARBOSA, E.; HOBUSS, J. (Orgs). Agência, Deliberação e Motivação. Pelotas: NepFil Online, 2018a, p. 89-112.

BARBOSA, Evandro. O ponto de vista da segunda-pessoa, Parte II: obrigação moral e o problema da responsabilidade. In: BARBOSA, E; HOBUSS, J. (Orgs.). Agência, Deliberação e Motivação - Volume II. Porto Alegre: Editora Fi, 2018b, p. 76-98.

BROOME, John. Normative Requirements, Ratio 12, 1999, p. 398–419. BROWN, James. Moral theory and the ought-can principle, Mind 86, 1977, p. 206–223.

COATES, D. Justin. & TOGNAZZINI, Neal. A. (Eds.). Blame: Its Nature and Norms. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

COLLINGRIDGE, D.G. Ought-implies-can and Hume’s rule, Philosophy 52, 1977, p. 348–351.

COPP, David. Morality in a Natural World: Selected Essays in Metaethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

DARWALL, Stephen. The Second-Person Standpoint: Morality, Respect, and Accountability. Cambridge: Harvard Press, 2006.

DARWALL, Stephen. Morality, Authority, and Law (I). Oxford: Oxford Press, 2013.

DARWALL, Stephen. Honor, History, and Relationship: Essays In Second-Personal Ethics II. Oxford: Oxford Press, 2013a.

FISCHER, John Martin. Ought-implies-can, causal determinism and moral responsibility, Analysis 63, 2003, p.244–250.

GERT, Bernard. Morality: Its Nature and Justification. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

GERT, Bernard. & GERT, Joshua. The Definition of Morality. In: ZALTA, E. N. (Ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Spring 2016 ed. [s.l: s.n.].

HARMAN, Gilbert. The Nature of Morality. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

JONES, Karen. But I Was Counting On You! In: FAULKNER, Paul; SIMPSON, Thomas. The Philosophy of Trust. 2017, p. 90-108.

KELIN, Erin I. What Is an Excuse? In: COATES, D. J.; TOGNAZZINI, N. A. (Eds.). Blame: Its Nature and Norms. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 244-262.

KORSGAARD, Christine. The Sources of Normativity, Onora O’Neill (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511554476

KORSGAARD, Christine. The Normativity of Instrumental Reason. In: Cullity & Gaut, p. 215-254, 1997. Reimpresso em Korsgaard, 2008. p. 27–68. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552733.003.0002

MOODY-ADAMS, Michele M. Culture, Responsibility, and Affected Ignorance In: Ethics, Vol. 104, No. 2 (Jan., 1994), pp. 291-309.

MACNAMARA, Coleen. Taking Demands Out of Blame. In: COATES, D. J.; TOGNAZZINI, N. A. (Eds.). Blame: Its Nature and Norms. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 141-161.

NAGEL, T. The View from Nowhere. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

NAGEL, T. Visão a partir de lugar nenhum. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2004.

NELKIN, Dana Kay. Making Sense of Moral Responsibility. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

PEREBOOM, Derk. Free Will Skepticism, Blame, and Obligation. in COATES, D. J.; TOGNAZZINI, N. A. (Eds.) Blame: Its Nature and Norms. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 189-206.

ROBINSON, Richard. Ought and ought not. Philosophy 46, 1971, p. 193–202.

ROSEN, Gideon. Skepticism about Moral Responsibility. Philosophical Perspectives, 18 (1), 2004, p. 295–313.

SAPONTZIS, Steve F. Ought does imply can. The Southern Journal of Philosophy 29, 1991, p. 383–393.

SCHNALL, Ira M. The principle of alternate possibilities and “ought” implies “can”. Analysis 61, 2001, p. 335–340.

SINNOTT-ARMSTRONG, Walter. Ought conversationally implies can, The Philosophical Review 93, 1984, p. 249–261.

STOCKER, Michael. (1971): Ought and can. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 49, 1971, p. 303–316.

SCANLON, Thomas M. What We Owe to Each Other. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.

SCANLON, Thomas M. Moral Dimensions: Permissibility, Meaning, Blame. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

SHER, George. In Praise of Blame. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

SIDGWICK, Henry. Outlines of the History of Ethics for English Readers. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1964.

STRAWSON, Peter. Frederick Freedom and Resentment. Proceedings of the British Academy, 48, 1962, p. 1–25.

STRAWSON, Peter. Freedom and Resentment. In: Ethical Theory: An Anthology. 2nd. Edition. Ed. Russ Shafer-Landau. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.

STRAWSON, Peter. Liberdade e ressentimento. In: CONTE, J.; GELAIN, I. L. (Eds.) Ensaios sobre a filosofia de Strawson. Florianópolis: Editora da UFSC, 2015. p. 245–269.

THOMPSON, Michael. What Is It to Wrong Someone? A Puzzle about Justice. In: WALLACE, R. J. (Ed.) Reason and Value: Themes from the Moral Philosophy of Joseph Raz. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. p. 333–84.

WALLACE, Jay, R. Responsibility and the Moral Sentiments. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994.

WALLACE, Jay, R. Dispassionate Opprobrium: On Blame and the Reactive Sentiments. In: Reason and Recognition: Essays on the Philosophy of T. M. Scanlon. Wallace, R. J.; Kumar, R.; Freeman, S. (Eds.) New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

WATSON, Gary. “Free Agency”, The Journal of Philosophy, 72(8), 1975, 205–220. doi:10.2307/2024703

WATSON, Gary. Responsibility and the Limits of Evil: Variations on a Strawsonian Theme. Schoeman, 1987 [2004], p. 256–286. Reprinted in Watson 2004: 219–259. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511625411.011

WATSON, Gary. Two Faces of Responsibility. Philosophical Topics, 24(2), 1996 [2004], p. 227–248. Reimpresso em Watson 2004: 260–88. doi:10.5840/philtopics199624222

WATSON, Gary. Agency and Answerability: Selected Essays. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199272273.001.0001

WOLF, Susan. Freedom within Reason. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

WOLF, Susan. Asymmetrical Freedom. The Journal of Philosophy, 77(3), 1980, p. 151–166. doi:10.2307/2025667

WOLF, Susan. Sanity and the Metaphysics of Responsibility. Schoeman, 1987, p. 46–62. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511625411.003

WOLF, Susan. Blame, Italian Style. Reasons and Recognition: Essays on the Philosophy of T. M. Scanlon, Ed. R. Jay Wallace, Rahul Kumar e Samuel Freeman. New York: Oxford Univerity Press, 2011.

Downloads

Publicado

2020-09-21

Edição

Seção

Artigos - Fluxo Contínuo