Linguagem e realidade: para uma teoria do significado segundo Hilary Putnam
In his work The meaning of meaning and Representation and Reality H. Putnam refutes the Aristotelian theory of language by defending his theory of an internal realism. The meaning (mental representation) of a word does not determine the reference of a word as in the conception of Aristotle. Language is a collective act of the human society and not an individual one. Scientific groups of experts can determine the meaning of a word by knowing the corresponding scientific standards and models. The determination of the meaning requires a public division of working to which trust and confidence belong. Furthermore without a benevolent interpretation and understanding, language and dialog of the linguistic community are not possible.
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