A contextualist approach to emergence

Esteban Céspedes

Abstract


What is exactly the emergence relation? In which sense is irreducibility associated with it besides being assumed by definition? Although in many cases the explanatory role of emergent states does not exceed the explanatory role of more basic states, this does not speak against the fact that, for some relevant explanatory contexts, emergent states are irreducible. On this basis, an epistemic concept of the emergence relation that does not depend strictly on irreducibility is here offered.


Keywords


Emergence; Reduction; Complexity; Causation

Full Text:

PDF/A

References


Alexander, S. (1927), Space, time, and deity, London, Macmillan.

Atmanspacher, H. (2015), “Contextual emergence of mental states”, Cognitive Processing, 16, pp. 359–364.

Bedau, M. (1997), “Weak emergence”, Philosophical Perspectives, 11, pp. 375-399.

Bedau, M. (2002), “Downward causation and the autonomy of weak emergence”, Principia, 6, pp. 5-50.

Bishop, R. & Atmanspacher, H. (2006), “Contextual Emergence in the Description of Properties”, Foundations of Physics, 36, pp. 1753-1777.

Broad, C. D. (1925), The mind and its place in nature, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Brigandt, I. (2010), “Beyond reduction and pluralism: Toward an epistemology of explanatory integration in biology”, Erkenntnis, 73, pp. 295–311.

Butterfield, J. (2011), “Less is Different: Emergence and Reduction Reconciled”, Foundations of Physics, 41, pp. 1065-1135.

Cartwright, N. (1989), Nature’s Capacities and Their Measurement, Oxford University Press.

Chalmers, D. (2006), “Strong and weak emergence” in P. Davies & P. Clayton (eds.), The Re-Emergence of Emergence, Oxford University Press.

Chang, H. (2017). “VI—Operational Coherence as the Source of Truth”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 117 (2), pp. 103-122.

Devitt, M. (1991), Realism and Truth, Blackwell.

Dowe, P. (2000), Physical Causation, Cambridge University Press.

Eells, E. (1991), Probabilistic Causality, Cambridge University Press.

El-Hani, C. N. & Pereira, A. M. (2000), “Higher-level descriptions: why should we preserve them” in Andersen, Emmeche, Finnemann & Christiansen (eds.), Downward Causation, University of Aarhus Press.

El-Hani, C. & Pihlström, S. (2002), A pragmatic realist view of emergence, Manuscrito 25, pp. 105-154.Fodor, J. (1974), Special sciences, Synthese 28, pp. 97–115.

Freeman, W. (2007), “Proposed Cortical 'Shutter' Mechanism in Cinematographic Perception” in Perlovsky & Kozma, Neurodynamics of cognition and consciousness, Springer.

Harbecke, J. & Atmanspacher, H. (2011), “Horizontal and vertical determination of mental and neural states”, Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 32, pp. 161-179.

Gell-Mann, M., & Lloyd, S. (1996). Information measures, effective complexity, and total information. Complexity 2(1), pp. 44-52.

Hempel, C. (1983). Valuation and objectivity in science, in R. Cohen & L. Laudan (eds.), Physics, Philosophy, and Psychoanalysis: Essays in Honor of Adolf Grünbaum, Springer, pp. 73-100.

Holland, J. (2014), Complexity: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press.

Halder, G., Callaerts, P. & Gehring, W. (1995), “Induction of Ectopic Eyes by Targeted Expression of the Eyeless Gene in Drosophila”, Science, 267, pp. 1788–1792.

Hardie, R. C., & Franze, K., 2012, “Photomechanical responses in Drosophila photoreceptors”, Science, vol, pp. 260–263.

Kim, J. (1999), “Making sense of emergence”, Philosophical Studies 95, pp. 3-36.

Kim, J. (2006), “Emergence: Core ideas and issues”, Synthese, 151, pp. 547–559.

Kirschner, M. & Gerhart, J. (2005), The plausibility of life: Resolving Darwin’s dilemma, Yale University Press.

Kitcher, P. (1984), “Species”, Philosophy of Science, 51, pp. 308–333.

Laubichler, M. & Wagner, G. (2001), “How molecular is molecular developmental biology? A reply to Alex Rosenberg’s reductionism redux: Computing the embryo”, Biology and Philosophy, 16, pp. 53–68.

Melnyk, A. (2003). A Physicalist Manifesto: Thoroughly Modern Materialism. Cambridge University Press.

Mill, J. S. (1843), A System of Logic, in J. Robson (ed.), 1973, The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, vol. 7-8, Indianapolis, Liberty Fund.

Ney, A. (2009), “Physical causation and difference-making”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 60, pp. 737-764.

Nagel, E. (1961), The Structure of Science: Problems in the Logic of Scientific Explanation, New York, Harcourt, Brace & World.

Olivera-Martinez I., Viallet J.P., Michon F., Pearton D.J. & Dhouailly D. (2004), “The different steps of skin formation in vertebrates”, The international journal of developmental biology, 48, pp. 107–15.

Papineau, D. (1996), Philosophical Naturalism, Oxford, Blackwell.

Peliti, L., & Vulpiani, A. (eds.). (1988). Measures of complexity. Springer.

Reichenbach, H. (1956), The Direction of Time, University of California Press.

Rosenberg, A. (1997), “Reductionism redux: Computing the embryo”, Biology and Philosophy, 12, pp. 445–470.

Rosenberg, A. & Kaplan, D. (2005), “How to reconcile physicalism and antireductionism about biology”, Philosophy of Science, 72, pp. 43–68.

Sankey, H, (2008), Scientific Realism and the Rationality of Science, Ashgate.

Shoemaker, S. (2007), Physical Realization, Oxford University Press.

Stalnaker, Robert C. (1999). Context and Content: Essays on Intentionality in Speech and Thought. Oxford University Press.

Stalnaker, R. (2014). Context. Oxford University Press.

Steel, D. (2004), “Can a reductionist be a pluralist?”, Biology and Philosophy, 19, pp. 55–73.

Suppes, P. (1970), A Probabilistic Theory of Causality, Amsterdam, North-Holland Publishing Company.

van Gulick, R. (2001). Reduction, emergence and other recent options on the mind/body problem: A philosophic overview. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (9-10):1-34.

Wilson, J. (2009), “Determination, realization and mental causation”, Philosophical Studies, 145, pp. 149-169.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2020v24n1p89

Copyright (c) 2020 Esteban Céspedes

 http://www.periodicos.ufsc.br/public/site/images/jconte/logo-nel1_154

Principia: an internationnal journal of epistemology
Published by NEL - Epistemology and Logic Research Group
Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC
Center of Philosophy and Human Sciences – CFH
Campus Reitor João David Ferreira Lima
Florianópolis, Santa Catarina - Brazil
CEP: 88040-900

 ISSN: 1414-4217
EISSN: 1808-171

e-mail: principia@contato.ufsc.br