Translation and adaptation of the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES) in a sample of Portuguese athletes, invariance across genders nature sports and swimming

Diogo Monteiro, Gilberto Nunes, Daniel Almeida Marinho, Nuno Couto, Raúl Antunes, João Moutão, Luis Cid


The aim of this study was to translate and validate of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES), from Mullen et al. version in Portuguese athletes, invariance across genders and nature sports and swimming, as well as, external validity, through the Portuguese version of BRSQ. Athletes (n=1032; 273 nature sports, 759 swimming) with an average age of 18,95 ± 6,59 years participated in this study. Confirmatory factor analysis (maximum likelihood), multigroup analysis (measurement invariance) and correlation analysis were used for data analyzed. Results supported the suitability of the models (one factor which eight items) showing an adequate fit to the data in each sample (general:χ²=181,96, p=<0,01, df=20, SRMR=0,04, NNFI=0,94, CFI=0,96, RMSEA=0,07, RMSEA 90% IC=0,06-0,08; male: χ²=113,27, p=<0,01, df=20, SRMR=0,04, NNFI=0,95, CFI=0,97, RMSEA=0,07, RMSEA 90% IC=0,06-0,08; female: χ²=67,59, p=<0,01, df=20, SRMR=0,03, NNFI=0,94, CFI=0,96, RMSEA=0,07, RMSEA 90% IC=0,06-0,09; nature sports: χ²=42,32, p=0,02, df=20, SRMR=0,037, NNFI=0,96, CFI=0,98, RMSEA=0,06, RMSEA 90% IC=0,04-0,08; swimming: χ²=130,14, p=<0,01, df=20, SRMR=0,04, NNFI=0,94, CFI=0,96, RMSEA=0,07, RMSEA 90% IC=0,06-0,08), as well as, were invariant across genders and nature sports and swimming (ΔCFI≤0,01). Enjoyment was, on the one hand, found to be positively and significantly correlated with identified regulation (r=0,82), integrated regulation (r=0,62) and intrinsic motivation (r=0,90). On the other, it was negatively and significantly correlated with amotivation (r=-0,25) and external and introjected regulation (r=-0,42; -0,38), respectively. Those findings allow concluding that PACES can be used to measure enjoyment in the future studies, thus filling an existing gap to date. 


Exercise; Motivation; Sports; Validation studies

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The abbreviated title of the journal is Rev. Bras. Cineantropom. Desempenho Hum, which should be used in bibliographies, footnotes and bibliographical references. E-ISSN 1980-0037, impressa ISSN 1415-8426, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.