O fundacionalismo filosófico em direitos humanos

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2018v17n1p99

Palavras-chave:

Direitos humanos, Fundacionalismo, Teorias normativas, Teorias substantivas

Resumo

A ideia de direitos humanos se transformou, gradualmente, no século XX, no discurso normativo primordial das relações internacionais. Nascido a partir de exigências práticas muito bem definidas, o vasto conjunto legal de normas de direitos humanos foi construído, contudo, por acordos complexos que escondiam contradições teóricas fundamentais. Neste trabalho vou analisar os termos da discussão contemporânea sobre a possibilidade de fundamentar filosoficamente, ou não, os direitos humanos. O artigo recupera parte do histórico debate filosófico de formação da Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos e reconstrói os argumentos de fundacionalistas normativistas e fundacionalistas substantivistas, com a finalidade de demonstrar a capacidade de cada conjunto teórico para lidar com os desafios de encontrar coerência entre a justificação racional e a aplicação prática dos direitos humanos.

Biografia do Autor

Rodolfo de Freitas Jacarandá, Universidade Federal de Rondônia

Professor Adjunto do Departamento de Filosofia da Universidade Federal de Rondônia. Coordenador do Mestrado em Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento da Justiça - PPG/DHJUS. Líder do Grupo de Pesquisa Ética e Direitos Humanos", CNPq/UNIR.

Referências

BEITZ, Charles. The Idea of Human Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

BEYLEVELD, Deryck. The Dialectical Necessity of Morality: An Analysis and Defense of Gewirth, Alan’s Argument to the Principle of Generic Consistency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

CI, Jiwei. Taking the Reasons for Human Rights Seriously. Political Theory, Vol. 33, No. 2 (Apr., 2005), pp. 243-265, 2005.

COHEN, Joshua. Minimalism About Human Rights: The Most We Can Hope For? Journal of Political Philosophy. Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 190–213, June 2004.

CORRADETTI, Claudio [Editor]. Philosophical Dimensions of Human Rights. Some Contemporary Views. New York: Springer, 2012.

DONNELLY, Jack. The Relative Universality of Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly, Volume 29, Number 2, May 2007, pp. 281-306. Published by The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

DONNELLY, Jack. Universal human rights in theory and practice. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003.

DWORKIN, Ronald. A raposa e o porco-espinho – justiça e valor. São Paulo: Editora WMF Martins Fontes, 2014.

FREEMAN, Michael. Human rights – An interdisciplinary approach. Cambridge: Polity Press, (2002) 2010.

FREEMAN, Michael. The Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 491-514, 1994.

GEWIRTH, Alan. The Basis and Content of Human Rights. Nomos. Vol. 23, Human Rights, Published by: American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy, pp. 119-147, 1981.

GEWIRTH, Alan. Human Rights: Essays on justification and applications. The University of Chicago Press, 1982.

GEWIRTH, Alan. The community of rights. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

GEWIRTH, Alan. Moral Foundations of Civil Rights Law. Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 125-147, 1987.

GLENDON, Mary Ann. A World Made New – Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: Random House, 2001.

GOODALE, Mark. The Myth of Universality: The UNESCO “Philosophers’ Committee” and the Making of Human Rights. Law & Social Inquiry, DOI: 10.1111/lsi.12343, 2017.

GRIFFIN, James. On human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

GRIFFIN, James. Human Rights and the Autonomy of International Law. In: S Besson and J Tasioulas (eds), The Philosophy of International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 339-357, 2010.

HABERMAS, Jürgen. Sobre a legitimação pelos direitos humanos. In.: Direito e legitimidade. MERLE, Jean-Christophe; MOREIRA, Luiz. São Paulo: Landy, 2003.

HABERMAS, Jürgen. The Concept of Human Dignity and The Realistic Utopia of Human Rights. Metaphilosophy. Vol. 41, No. 4, July, 2010.

HABERMAS, Jürgen. Direito e democracia – Entre a facticidade e a validade. Rio de Janeiro: Ed. Tempo Brasileiro, 2012.

IGNATIEFF, Michael. Human Rights as Politics - Human Rights as Idolatry. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

LIAO, S. Matthew; ETINSON, Adam. Political and Naturalistic Conceptions of Human Rights: A False Polemic? Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (2012) 327–352, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2012.

LIAO, Mathew S. Human Rights as Fundamental Conditions for a Good Life. In: Rowan Cruft, S. Matthew Liao, Massimo Renzo. Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press, (pp. 79-101) 2015.

MARITAIN, Jacques. Man and the State. Charles Walgreen Foundation Lectures. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

MCINTYRE, Alasdair. After Virtue. Notre Dame, Indiana: Notre Dame University Press, 2007.

MONTAÑA, Robert A. The Gewirthian Principle of Generic Consistency as a Foundation for Human Fulfillment: Unveiling a Rational Path for Moral and Political Hope. Kritike. Volume Three Number One (JUNE 2009) 24-39. 2009.

PILON, Roger. Ordering Rights Consistently – Or What We Do and Do Not Have Right To. Georgia Law Review, V. 13. N. 4, pp. 1171-1196, 1979.

RABOSSI, Eduardo. La teoría de los derechos humanos naturalizada. Revista del Centro de Estudios Constitucionales. Núm. 5. pp. 159-175. Enero-marzo, 1990.

RAWLS, John. O direito dos povos. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2001.

RAZ, Joseph. Human Rights in the Emerging World Order. (2010) 1 Transnational Legal Theory 31–47, 2010a.

RAZ, Joseph. Human Rights whitout Foundations. In.: S Besson and J Tasioulas (eds), The Philosophy of International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010): 321, 330-333, 2010b.

RORTY, Richard. Human Rights, Rationality, and Sentimentality. In.: S Shute and SL Hurley (eds), On Human Rights: The Oxford Amnesty Lectures. New York: Basic Books, 1993.

RORTY, Richard. Philosophy and Social Hope. New York: Penguin Books, 1999.

TASIOULAS, John. On the Foundation of Human Rights. In: Rowan Cruft, S. Matthew Liao, Massimo Renzo. Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press, (pp. 45-71) 2015.

TASIOULAS, John. Towards a Philosophy of Human Rights. Current Legal Problems, Volume 65, Issue 1, 1 January 2012, Pages 1–30, 2012.

TIERNEY, Brian. The Ideia of Natural Rights - Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law, and Church Law 1150 1625. Michigan: William Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997.

TUCK, Richard. Natural rights theories – their origin and developments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

UNESCO. Memorandum sur les droits de l’Homme. UNESCO/Phil./1/1947. Paris, 27 le mars, 1947a.

UNESCO. Report of the UNESCO Committee on the Philosophic Principles of the Rights of Man to the Commission on Human Rights of the United Nations. UNESCO/Phil./10/1947. 1947b.

UNESCO. Human rights – Comments and interpretations. UNESCO/PHS/3(rev.). Paris, 25 de julho de 1948.

UNITED NATIONS. The United Nations Human Rights Treaty System. Fact Sheet No. 30/Rev.1. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. New York and Geneva, 2012.

VERNENGO, Roberto J. Human Rights and Axiological Inconsistencies. Law and Philosophy, Vol. 8, No. 1, Rights, Duties and Legal Reasoning (Apr., 1989), pp. 65-82, 1989.

WALDRON, Jeremy. Dignity, rank and rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

WALDRON, Jeremy. Is dignity the foundation of human rights? In: Rowan Cruft, S. Matthew Liao, Massimo Renzo. Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press, (pp. 117-138) 2015.

WALTERS, Gregory J. MacIntyre or Gewirth? Virtue, Rights, and the Problem of Moral Indeterminacy. In: Philosophical Theory and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 183-200. Edited William Sweet. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2003.

WHITE, Stephen K. On the Normative Structure of Action: Gewirth and Habermas. The Review of Politics, 281-301.

Downloads

Publicado

2018-10-05

Edição

Seção

Artigos