Multiculturalismo e tolerância às restrições internas

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2021.e82311

Palavras-chave:

Minorias culturais, Opressão, Liberalismo, Povos Indígenas

Resumo

Una crítica común al multiculturalismo señala que este es tolerante con las restricciones internas, esto es, con restricciones a los derechos básicos de integrantes de las minorías vulnerables al interior de las minorías culturales. Este artículo responde a esa crítica, identificando tres motivaciones que fundamentan al multiculturalismo como teoría política normativa – comunitarista, pluralista, individualista – y argumentando que la tolerancia con las restricciones internas solo es compatible con la primera y la tercera. Argumento también que la tolerancia con las restricciones internas del multiculturalismo individualista no es consecuencia de la lógica normativa de esta concepción de la justicia y, por lo tanto, no se ve afectado por la crítica. De esta manera, el artículo revindica al multiculturalismo individualista como una teoría de la justicia y sugiere su relevancia para analizar preguntas de justicia social de los pueblos indígenas de América Latina.

Referências

ARAUJO, Ricardo. “Os paradoxos (solúveis e insolúveis) da tolerância”. Ethic@, 18 (1): 61-84, 2019.

RIVERA, Aguiçar; ANTONIO, José. Multiculturalism and Constitutionalism in Latin America. Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law 4 (1): 19, 2014.

BARRY, Brian. Culture and Equality: An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism. Cambridge: Polity Press. 2002.

BELL, Daniel. Communitarianism. In. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 2020. Disponível em https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2020/entries/communitarianism/.

CUNHA, Manuela Carneiro da. Índios no Brasil. Claro Enigma, 2013.

DAGGER, Richard; LEFKOWITZ, David. “Political Obligation”. In. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 2021. Disponível em https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2021/entries/political-obligation/.

EARP, Brian. Boys and Girls Alike. The Ethics of Male and Female Circumcision. In. Women, Health, & Healthcare: Readings on Social, Structural, & Systemic Issues. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2017. Disponível em http://blog.practicalethics.ox.ac.uk/2017/08/does-female-genital-mutilation-have-health-benefits-the-problem-with-medicalizing-morality/.

EISENBER, Avigail; SPINNER-HALEV, Jeff. Minorities within Minorities: Equality, Rights and Diversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

FERES, João. CAMPOS, Luiz Augusto. Ação afirmativa no brasil: multiculturalismo ou justiça social?. Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política, 257–93, 2016.

FRASER, Nancy. From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a ‘Postsocialist’ Age. In. Justice Interruptus. Routledge, 1997.

GALSTON, William A. Two Concepts of Liberalism. Ethics 105 (3): 516–34, 1995.

HERR, Ranjoo Seodu. A Third World Feminist Defense of Multiculturalism. Social Theory and Practice 30 (1): 73–103, 2004.

KOHN, Margaret; REDDY, Kavita. Colonialism. In. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 2017.

KUKATHAS, Chandran. Are There Any Cultural Rights?. Political Theory 20 (1): 105–39, 1992.

KUKATHAS, Chandran. The Liberal Archipelago. Oxford University Press, 2003.

KYMLICKA, Will. Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford University Press, 1996.

KYMLICKA, Will. Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism, and Citizenship. 1 edition. Oxford, UK New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

MARGALIT, Avishai; RAZ, Joseph. National Self-Determination. The Journal of Philosophy 87 (9): 439–61, 1990.

MELIDORO, Domenico. Dealing with Diversity: A Study in Contemporary Liberalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2020.

MOORE, Margaret. Internal minorities and indigenous self-determination. In. Minorities within Minorities: Equality, Rights and Diversity, editado por Avigail Eisenberg y Jeff Spinner-Halev, 271–93. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

OKIN, Susan Moller. Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? Editado por Martha C. Nussbaum y Joshua Cohen. 1st Edition. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999.

PARIJS, Philippe van. Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World. 1st edition. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

PATTEN, Alan. Equal Recognition: The Moral Foundations of Minority Rights. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.

PICQ, Manuela Lavinas. Vernacular Sovereignties: Indigenous Women Challenging World Politics, 2018.

RAMOS, Alcida Rita. Nações dentro da nação: um desencontro de ideologias. Série Antropologia 147. Brasilia: DAN/UnB, 1993.

RAMOS, Alcida Rita. Indigenismo:um orientalismo americano. Anuário Antropológico, núm. v.37 n.1 (julio): 27–48, 2012.

SANDEL. Michael J. Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. 2a ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

SHACHAR, Ayelet. “On Citizenship and Multicultural Vulnerability”. Political Theory 28 (1): 64–89, 2000.

SOARES, Leonardo Barros. (Un)changing indigenous land claims policy: Evidences from a cross-national comparison between Canada and Brazil. Belo Horizonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 2019.

SOARES, Leonardo Barros. A ausência eloquente: ciência política brasileira, povos indígenas e o debate acadêmico canadense contemporâneo. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Política, 33, 2020.

SONG, Sarah.“Justice, Gender, and the Politics of Multiculturalism”. Cambridge Core. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

TAYLOR, Charles. Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition. Editado por Amy Gutmann. Revised edition. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1994.

TULLY, James. Strange Multiplicity: Constitutionalism in an Age of Diversity. The Seeley Lectures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1995.

COTT, Van; LEE, Donna. “Multiculturalism versus Neoliberalism in Latin America”. En Multiculturalism and the Welfare State, editado por Keith Banting y Will Kymlicka, 272–95. Oxford University Press. 2006.

VITA, Alvaro de. “Liberalismo igualitário e multiculturalismo”. Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política, núm. 55–56: 05–27. 2002.

VITA, Álvaro de. Liberalismo Igualitário. Sociedade Democrática e Justiça Internacional. 2008.

WALZER, Michael. 1984. Spheres Of Justice: A Defense Of Pluralism And Equality. Basic Books. 1984.

Downloads

Publicado

2021-10-29