Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças e adolescentes brasileiros: uma revisão sistemática

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-0037.2021v23e80352

Palavras-chave:

Sobrepeso, Obesidade, Fatores de risco, Infância, Adolescência, Brasil

Resumo

É importante conhecer a situação de sobrepeso e obesidade de crianças e adolescentes brasileiros. O presente estudo teve como objetivo atualizar a produção científica, por meio de uma revisão sistemática, sobre a prevalência e os fatores associados ao sobrepeso e à obesidade em crianças e adolescentes brasileiros. Nove bases de dados foram verificadas e 1.316 referências foram examinadas de 2018 a 2019. A busca eletrônica foi realizada por três pesquisadores independentes. Todas as etapas de revisão seguiram uma estratégia baseada no PRISMA. 40 estudos foram incluídos nesta revisão sistemática. A maioria dos estudos usou os critérios de classificação da Organização Mundial da Saúde. A prevalência de excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes brasileiros variou de 8,8% a 22,2% (meninos: 6,2% a 21%; meninas: 6,9% a 27,6%). A prevalência de obesidade variou de 3,8% a 24% (meninos: 2,4% a 28,9%; meninas: 1,6% a 19,4%). Observou-se que os fatores socioeconômicos (sexo, cor da pele, nível econômico, região, escolaridade da mãe, morar em casa alugada e sem acesso à internet), hereditários/genéticos (histórico familiar de dislipidemia e excesso de peso e genótipo rs9939609) e comportamentais (atividade física, tempo de tela, hábitos alimentares, peso corporal percebido, vulnerabilidade à saúde, presença de resultado próximo a casa, bebida alcoólica, consumo de cigarro) estiveram associados ao desfecho. Conclui-se que as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade entre crianças e adolescentes brasileiros são preocupantes e a maioria dos fatores associados aos desfechos está sujeita a mudanças a partir da adoção de um estilo de vida saudável.

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2021-12-08

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Artigos de Revisão