Línguas em conflito: modelos de acesso lexical a partir do input ortográfico em bilíngues e multilíngues e o efeito do multilinguismo sobre as funções executivas

Autores

  • Marina Fernandes Neves Lameira Universidade Federal do ABC
  • Elaine Cristina de Barros Torresi Universidade Federal do ABC
  • Katerina Lukasova Universidade Federal do ABC
  • Maria Teresa Carthery-Goulart Universidade Federal do ABC

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2020v40nesp2p185

Palavras-chave:

Homógrafos Interlinguais, Multilinguismo, Conflito Linguístico, Funções Executivas

Resumo

O fenômeno do bilinguismo é a premissa essencial da tradução. Este trabalho apresenta modelos cognitivos contemporâneos que explicam o acesso lexical de bilíngues e multilíngues para o reconhecimento de palavras escritas, a partir de experimentos com homógrafos interlinguais. São abordados os trabalhos sobre conflito entre duas ou mais línguas,e como seus achados convergem para a hipótese de acesso não-seletivo ao léxico, o que elucida o impacto do bilinguismo nos processos de leitura e
tradução. Como objetivo secundário, e a partir de uma perspectiva neurocientífica, também descrevemos as mudanças no cérebro e nos processos mentais decorrentes à experiência do bilinguismo e do multilinguismo. Os estudos mostram vantagens nas funções executivas (atualização, inibição e flexibilidade mental) e mudanças estruturais e funcionais em circuitos, especialmente envolvendo os córtices pré-frontais bilateralmente. Estas mudanças têm sido apontadas como fatores importantes de proteção (reserva cognitiva e cerebral) frente a diferentes situações de perdaneural.

Biografia do Autor

Marina Fernandes Neves Lameira, Universidade Federal do ABC

Mestranda em Neurociência e Cognição - Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC. Bacharela e Licenciada em Letras, dupla habilitação: Português/Alemão pela Universidade de São Paulo (USP) - Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas. Aluna bolsista em semestre de intercâmbio acadêmico na Universidade Ruperto Carola de Heidelberg, na Alemanha. Bolsista do DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst) no programa Winterkurs 2015.

Elaine Cristina de Barros Torresi, Universidade Federal do ABC

Neurocientista graduada e pós-graduada pela Universidade Federal do ABC. Estuda a linguagem e o cérebro bilíngue, as funções executivas e o processamento numérico, com interesse especial na relação entre Neurociência e Educação. É também Bacharel em Ciência e Tecnologias (UFABC), Bacharel em Odontologia (USP) e especialista em Endodontia (USP).

Katerina Lukasova, Universidade Federal do ABC

Formou se em psicologia pela Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (2004), possui mestrado em Distúrbios de Desenvolvimento pela mesma instituição (2007) e doutorado em ciências pela Universidade de São Paulo. Atualmente é professora da Universidade Federal do ABC. Tem experiência na área de psicologia cognitiva e neuropsicologia atuando principalmente nos seguintes temas: leitura e escrita, distúrbios de aprendizagem, instrumentos e jogos digitais para educação regular e inclusiva. Tem conhecimento de técnicas de registro de movimento ocular (Eye tracking) e Ressonância Magnética funcional.

Maria Teresa Carthery-Goulart, Universidade Federal do ABC

possui graduação em Fonoaudiologia pela Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (1996), mestrado em Psicologia (Neurociências e Comportamento) pelo Instituto de Psicologia da Universidade de São Paulo (2000) e doutorado em Ciências (Neurologia) pela Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (2005). Realizou estágio pós-doutoral no Medical Research Council - Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, Reino Unido (2008). Atualmente é Professora Adjunta da Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição (CMCC) e pesquisadora colaboradora do Grupo de Neurologia Cognitiva e do Comportamento - HCFMUSP. Coordena o Grupo de Estudos em Neurociência da Linguagem e Cognição (GELC - UFABC). Coordena os três projetos de extensão: (1) AtivAmente -UFABC , dirigido à terceira idade; (2) Neurociência e Educação: desmistificando o cérebro, dirigido a professores da rede pública de ensino e (3) Curso de Férias do Programa de Pós-graduação em Neurociência e Cognição da UFABC, dirigido a interessados em ingressar na pós-graduação stricto- senso da mesma instituição. Coordenadora do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociência e Cognição da UFABC. Tem experiência na área de Linguagem Oral e Escrita, Memória; Desenvolvimento Cognitivo; Envelhecimento, Linguagem e Cognição; Bilinguismo, Multilinguismo e Cognição; Cognição Corporificada (Embodied Cognition) e Linguagem, Adaptação transcultural de instrumentos para avaliação de linguagem, cognição e atividades de vida diária e em estudos que investigam a influência da escolaridade e alfabetismo funcional sobre o desempenho em testes cognitivos.

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2020-12-07