A proposta europeia de regulação da inteligência artificial

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2022.e91435

Palavras-chave:

Inteligência Artificial, Artificial Intelligence Act. , Governança de dados, Regulação dura, Regulação suave.

Resumo

Em 21 de abril de 2021, a Comissão Europeia publicou sua proposta de regulação de IA (Artificial Intelligence Act – AIA). Trata-se de proposta legislativa pioneira que certamente influenciará os demais países a seguirem o mesmo caminho. O objetivo do presente estudo é destacar as características fundamentais do AIA a fim de possibilitar uma visão geral e otimizada dos principais aspectos da lei. Utilizou-se do método exploratório descritivo, com suporte em pesquisa bibliográfica, onde se buscou, a partir da base de dados do “Portal Periódicos Capes/MEC e do “Google Scholar”, fazer uma ampla pesquisa de artigos científicos que trouxessem em seus títulos os termos Inteligência Artificial, Artificial Intelligence Act, regulação de IA, governança de dados, regulação dura e regulação suave. A partir da análise da revisão bibliográfica, pode-se verificar que a Comissão Europeia fez uma opção por um regulação dura e que o AIA propõe uma abordagem baseada em riscos, impondo encargos regulatórios apenas quando um sistema de IA é suscetível  de representar altos riscos aos direitos fundamentais. Concluiu-se, também, que o AIA busca evitar o sufocamento da tecnologia, permitindo que se crie um ecossistema de IA na União Europeia.

Biografia do Autor

Everton Menengola, PUCPR

Master in Law from the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. Attorney. 

Emerson Gabardo, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná

PhD in State Law from the Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. Full Professor of Administrative Law at the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná and Adjunct Professor of Administrative Law at the Federal University of Paraná.

Nancy Nelly González Sanmiguel, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

PhD in of Law and Criminology. Full Professor of Administrative Law at the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico, where he carried out his doctoral studies, as well as her Post-Doctoral studies at the University of Jaén, in Spain and at the Autonomous University of Chiapas, she is the author of many books such ae her most recent one "Governance and public policies from Digital Law”, among others. In the field of work, she has carried out Professional Activities in the SAT Tax Administration Service (SHCP). Member of the National Association of Municipal Lawyers and Member of the National System of Researchers.

Referências

AI HLEG - High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence. A Definition of Artificial Intelligence: Main Capabilities and Scientific Disciplines. Brussels. 2019. Disponível em https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/library/definition-artificial-intelligence-main-capabilities-and-scientific-disciplines. Acesso em: 07 out. 2022.

ALEGRÍA, Jonathan Piedra. Descolonizando la Ética de la Inteligencia Artificial. Dilemata, n. 38, p. 247-258, 2022. Disponível em: https://www.dilemata.net/revista/index.php/dilemata/article/view/412000447. Acesso em: 15 set. 2022.

ASAN, Onur; CHOUDHURY, Avishek. Research trends in artificial intelligence applications in human factors health care: mapping review. JMIR human factors, v. 8, n. 2, 2021. Disponível em: https://humanfactors.jmir.org/2021/2/e28236. Acesso em: 26 set. 2022.

BRADFORD, Anu. The Brussels effect. Northwestern University Law Review 107.1 (2012): 1-67. Disponível em: https://northwesternlawreview.org/issues/the-brussels-effect/. Acesso em: 14 set. 2022.

BRADFORD, Anu. The Brussels effect: how the European Union rules the world. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020. Kindle edition.

BRESNAHAN, Timothy F.; TRAJTENBERG, Manuel. General purpose technologies' Engines of growth'? Journal of Econometrics, v. 65, n. 1, p. 83-108, 1995. Disponível em: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/030440769401598T. Acesso em: 12 out. 2022.

CDEI – Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation. The European Commission's artificial intelligence act highlights the need for an effective AI assurance ecosystem. 2021. Disponível em: https://cdei.blog.gov.uk/2021/05/11/the-european-commissions-artificial-intelligence-act-highlights-the-need-for-an-effective-ai-assurance-ecosystem/. Acesso em: 14 set. 2022.

COWLS, Josh et al. The AI gambit: leveraging artificial intelligence to combat climate change—opportunities, challenges, and recommendations. Ai & Society, p. 1-25, 2021. Disponível em: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00146-021-01294-x. Acesso em: 07 out. 2022.

CRISTÓVAM, José Sérgio da Silva; SCHIEFLER, Eduardo André Carvalho; PEIXOTO, Fabiano Hartmann. A inteligência artificial aplicada à criação de uma central de jurisprudência administrativa: o uso das novas tecnologias no âmbito da gestão de informações sobre precedentes em matéria administrativa. Revista do Direito. Santa Cruz do Sul. v. 3, n. 50, p. 18-34, jan./abr. 2020. Disponível em: https://www.academia.edu/83462726/A_IA_CENTRAL_DE_JURISPRUDENCIA_ADMINISTRATIVA Acesso em: 17 out. 2022.

CRISTÓVAM, José Sérgio da Silva; SCHIEFLER, Eduardo André Carvalho; SOUSA, Thanderson Pereira de. Administração pública digital e a problemática da desigualdade no acesso à tecnologia. International Journal of Digital Law, Belo Horizonte, ano 1, n. 2, p. 97-116, maio/ago. 2020. Disponível em: https://journal.nuped.com.br/index.php/revista/article/view/schiefler2020 Acesso em: 17 out. 2022.

CURZON, James; et all. "Privacy and Artificial Intelligence. IEEE Transactions on Artificial Intelligence 2.2, 2021. p. 96-108. Disponível em: https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.ez433.periodicos.capes.gov.br/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9450036. Acesso em: 29 set. 2022.

DIVINO, Sthéfano Bruno Santos. Desafios e benefícios da inteligência artificial para o direito do consumidor. Revista Brasileira De Políticas Públicas, 2021, Vol.11 (1). Disponível em: https://www.publicacoes.uniceub.br/RBPP/article/view/6669. Acesso em: 05 out. 2022.

EBERS, Martin. Standardizing AI-The Case of the European Commission's Proposal for an Artificial Intelligence Act. The Cambridge Handbook of Artificial Intelligence: Global Perspectives on Law and Ethics, 2021. Disponível em: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3900378. Acesso em: 07 out. 2022.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union. Brussels, 2012. Disponível em: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:12012P/TXT. Acesso em: 02 out. 2022.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Ethics guidelines for trustworthy AI. 2019. Disponível em: https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/library/ethics-guidelines-trustworthy-ai. Acesso em: 28 set. 2022.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down harmonized rules on artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence act) and amending certain union legislative acts. Brussels. 2021. Disponível em: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52021PC0206. Acesso em: 02 oct. 2021.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. White paper on artificial intelligence: a European approach to excellence and trust. Brussels. 2020. Disponível em: https://ec.europa.eu/info/publications/white-paper-artificial-intelligence-european-approach-excellence-and-trust_en. Acesso em: 01 out. 2021.

EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. Preparing for the future of artificial intelligence. 2016. Disponível em: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/whitehouse_files/microsites/ostp/NSTC/preparing_for_the_future_of_ai.pdf. Acesso em: 28 set. 2022.

FERREIRA, Rodrigo; VARDI, Moshe Y. Deep tech ethics: an approach to teaching social justice in computer science. In: Proceedings of the 52nd ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education. 2021. p. 1041-1047. Disponível em: https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3408877.3432449. Acesso em: 29 set. 2022.

FLORIDI, Luciano. The European Legislation on AI: A brief analysis of its philosophical approach. Philosophy & Technology, v. 34, n. 2, p. 215-222, 2021. Disponível em: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13347-021-00460-9. Acesso em: 07 out. 2021.

HEDLUND, Maria. Distribution of forward-looking responsibility in the EU process on AI regulation. Frontiers in Human Dynamics, 2022. Disponível em: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/359895608_Distribution_of_Forward-Looking_Responsibility_in_the_EU_Process_on_AI_Regulation. Acesso em: 16 set. 2022.

HILL, D et al. 2015. What Is Ce Marking? How Technologies Are Classified, And How To Navigate The System. Value in Health 18, A367. Disponível em: https://www.valueinhealthjournal.com/article/S1098-3015(15)02806-5/fulltext. Acesso em: 06 out. 2022.

HUTSON, Matthew. The Opacity of Artificial Intelligence Makes It Hard to Tell When Decision-making Is Biased. IEEE Spectrum. 58.2, 2021. p. 40-45. Disponível em: https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.ez433.periodicos.capes.gov.br/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9340114. Acesso em: 30 set. 2022.

KAAL, Wulf A. Dynamic regulation for innovation. Perspectives in Law, Business & Innovation (Mark Fenwick, Wulf A. Kaal, Toshiyuki Kono & Erik PM Vermeulen eds.). New York Springer (2016), U of St. Thomas (Minnesota) Legal Studies Research Paper n. 16-22, 2016. Disponível em: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2831040. Acesso em: 12 out. 2022.

KAAL, Wulf A.; VERMEULEN, Erik P.M. How to Regulate Disruptive Innovation - From Facts to Data. Jurimetrics, v. 57, Issue n. 2, 2017. Forthcoming, U of St. Thomas (Minnesota) Legal Studies Research Paper n. 16-13. Disponível em: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2808044. Acesso em: 26 out. 2021.

KOP, Mauritz. EU Artificial Intelligence Act: The European Approach to AI. Transatlantic antitrust and IPR Developments, 2021. Disponível em: https://law.stanford.edu/publications/eu-artificial-intelligence-act-the-european-approach-to-ai/. Acesso em: 12 out. 2022.

MA, Yifang et al. Artificial intelligence applications in the development of autonomous vehicles: a survey. IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica, v. 7, n. 2, p. 315-329, 2020. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9016391. Acesso em: 26 set. 2022.

MANHEIM, Karl; KAPLAN, Lyric. Artificial intelligence: Risks to privacy and democracy. Yale JL & Tech., v. 21, p. 106, 2019. Disponível em: https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/yjolt21&div=4&id=&page=. Acesso em: 29 set. 2022.

MENENGOLA, Everton. Blockchain na Administração Pública Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Lumen Juris, 2022.

MERCADER UGUINA, Jesús R., Algoritmos e inteligencia artificial en el derecho digital del trabajo. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2022.

MÖKANDER, Jakob et al. Conformity assessments and post-market monitoring: a guide to the role of auditing in the proposed European AI regulation. Minds and Machines, v. 32, n. 2, p. 241-268, 2022. Disponível em: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11023-021-09577-4. Acesso em: 14 set. 2022.

MÖKANDER, Jakob et al. Conformity assessments and post-market monitoring: a guide to the role of auditing in the proposed European AI regulation. Minds and Machines, v. 32, n. 2, p. 241-268, 2022. Disponível em: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11023-021-09577-4. Acesso em: 14 set. 2022.

NWAFOR, Ifeoma Elizabeth. AI ethical bias: a case for AI vigilantism (AIlantism) in shaping the regulation of AI. International Journal of Law and Information Technology, v. 29, n. 3, p. 225-240, 2021. Disponível em: https://academic.oup.com/ijlit/article/29/3/225/6389717?login=true. Acesso em: 15 set. 2022.

POSCHER, Ralf. Artificial intelligence and the right to data protection. Max Planck Institute for the Study of Crime, Security and Law Working Paper, n. 2021/03, 2021. Disponível em: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3769159. Acesso em: 04 out. 2022.

PRATES, Marcelo OR; AVELAR, Pedro H.; LAMB, Luís C. Assessing gender bias in machine translation: a case study with google translate. Neural Computing and Applications, v. 32, n. 10, p. 6363-6381, 2020. Disponível em: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00521-019-04144-6. Acesso em: 07 out. 2022.

REJMANIAK, Rafal. Bias in Artificial Intelligence Systems. Bialostockie Studia Prawnicze, v. 26, p. 25, 2021. Disponível em: https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/bialspw26&div=36&id=&page=. Acesso em: 07 out. 2022.

REYNA, Justo; GABARDO, Emerson; SANTOS, Fábio de Sousa. Governo eletrônico, invisibilidade digital e direitos fundamentais. Sequência (Florianópolis), n. 85, p. 30-50, ago. 2020. Disponível em: https://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/sequencia/article/view/75278 Acesso em: 17 out. 2022.

SAMOILI, Sofia et al. AI Watch. Defining Artificial Intelligence. Towards an operational definition and taxonomy of artificial intelligence. 2020. Disponível em: https://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/28047/. Acesso em: 29 set. 2022.

SÁNCHEZ BRAVO, Álvaro Avelino. Marco Europeo para una inteligencia artificial basada en las personas. International Journal of Digital Law, Belo Horizonte, ano 1, n. 1, p. 65-78, jan./abr. 2020. Disponível em: https://journal.nuped.com.br/index.php/revista/article/view/sanchezbravov1n1/262. Acesso em: 30 set. 2022.

SANTOS, Gabriela da Silva. Do risco de lesão aos direitos e garantias fundamentais diante da propensão estereotipada da Inteligência Artificial. 2021. Monografia de Conclusão de Curso, Direito. Unisul. Araranguá. 49p. Disponível em: https://repositorio.animaeducacao.com.br/handle/ANIMA/19598. Acesso em: 04 out. 2022.

TEUBNER, Gunther. Das regulatorische Trilemma: Zur Diskussion um post-instrumentale Rechtsmodelle. Quaderni Fiorentini per la storia del pensiero giuridico moderno, v. 13, n. 1, p. 109-149, 1984. Disponível em: http://www.centropgm.unifi.it/cache/quaderni/13/0112.pdf. Acesso em 29 set. 2022.

UFERT, Fabienne. AI regulation through the lens of fundamental rights: How well does the GDPR address the challenges posed by AI? European Papers-A Journal on Law and Integration, v. 2020, n. 2, p. 1087-1097, 2020. Disponível em: https://www.europeanpapers.eu/it/europeanforum/ai-regulation-through-the-lens-of-fundamental-rights. Acesso em 15 set. 2022.

UNITED KINGDON GOVERNMENT. National AI Strategy. 2021. Disponível em: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-ai-strategy. Acesso em: 14 set. 2022.

WEBER, Rolf H. Artificial Intelligence ante portas: Reactions of Law. J Multidiciplinary Scientific Journal, v. 4, n. 3, p. 486-499, 2021. Disponível em: https://www.mdpi.com/2571-8800/4/3/37. Acesso em: 30 set. 2022.

Downloads

Publicado

2023-02-01

Como Citar

MENENGOLA, Everton; GABARDO, Emerson; GONZÁLEZ SANMIGUEL, Nancy Nelly. A proposta europeia de regulação da inteligência artificial. Seqüência Estudos Jurídicos e Políticos, Florianópolis, v. 43, n. 91, p. 1–27, 2023. DOI: 10.5007/2177-7055.2022.e91435. Disponível em: https://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/sequencia/article/view/91435. Acesso em: 29 maio. 2024.