Developmental dyslexia: a condensed review of literature

Anna Belavina Kuerten, Mailce Borges Mota, Katrien Segaert

Abstract


In this article we provide a condensed review of literature on developmental dyslexia. Starting with the historical background to this language-based reading disorder, we discuss four key components that are crucial for a valid and operational definition of developmental dyslexia. We then present the major theoretical explanations of developmental dyslexia in order to gain a better understanding of the causes of this reading disorder. These causal explanations are addressed in the context of Morton and Frith’s (1995) model. Four major theories of developmental dyslexia are discussed: the phonological deficit theory, the double-deficit theory, the magnocellular theory, and the cerebellar theory. The last section of this review addresses the model of reading development proposed by Frith (1986). Understanding the developmental progression of children’s abilities in reading is crucial in order to detect in which phase of this progression a breakdown attributed to dyslexia occurs.


Keywords


Developmental Dyslexia; Dyslexic Children; Acquisition of Reading

Full Text:

PDF/A

References


Adelman, J. S. (2012). Visual Word Recognition Volume 2: Meaning and Context, Individuals and Development. London and New York: Psychology Press.

Baillieux, H., Vandervliet, E. J. M., Manto, M., Parizel, P. M., Deyn, P. P. D., & Mariën, P. (2009). Developmental dyslexia and widespread activation across the cerebellar hemispheres. Brain and Language, 108(2), 122–132.

Beaton, A. (2004). Dyslexia, Reading and the Brain: A Sourcebook of Psychological and Biological Research. London and New York: Psychology Press.

Beech, J. R. (2005). Ehri’s model of phases of learning to read: A brief critique. Journal of Research in Reading, 28(1), 50–58.

Beneventi, H., TøNnessen, F. E., Ersland, L., & Hugdahl, K. (2010). Executive working memory processes in dyslexia: Behavioral and fMRI evidence: Working memory deficit in dyslexia. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51(3), 192–202.

Bielby, N. (1999). Teaching Reading: Key Stage 2. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

Bishop, D. V. M., & Snowling, M. J. (2004). Developmental Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different? Psychological Bulletin, 130(6), 858–886.

Bloom, J. S., Garcia-Barrera, M. A., Miller, C. J., Miller, S. R., & Hynd, G. W. (2013). Planum Temporale Morphology in Children with Developmental Dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 51(9), 1684–1692.

Carreiras, M., Mechelli, A., Estévez, A., & Price, C. J. (2007). Brain Activation for Lexical Decision and Reading Aloud: Two Sides of the Same Coin? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19(3), 433–444.

Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (1993). Varieties of developmental dyslexia. Cognition, 47(2), 149–180.

Cook, V., & Ryan, D. (2016). The Routledge Handbook of the English Writing System. New York: Routledge.

Démonet, J.-F., Taylor, M. J., & Chaix, Y. (2004). Developmental dyslexia. The Lancet, 363(9419), 1451–1460.

D’Mello, A. & Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2018). Cognitive neuroscience of dyslexia. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 49, 798-809.

Ehri, L. C. (1995). Phases of development in learning to read words by sight. Journal of Research in Reading, 18(2), 116–125.

Elbro, C. (1996). Early linguistic abilities and reading development: A review and a hypothesis. Reading and Writing, 8(6), 453–485.

Elliott, J. G., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2014). The Dyslexia Debate. Cambridge University Press.

Fabbro, F., Moretti, R., & Bava, A. (2000). Language impairments in patients with cerebellar lesions. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 13(2–3), 173–188.

Fawcett, A. J., & Nicolson, R. I. (1994). Naming Speed in Children with Dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27(10), 641–646.

Fawcett, A. J., & Nicolson, R. I. (1995). Persistent Deficits in Motor Skill of Children with Dyslexia. Journal of Motor Behavior, 27(3), 235–240.

Fisher, S. E., & DeFries, J. C. (2002). Developmental dyslexia: genetic dissection of a complex cognitive trait. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3(10), 767–780.

Fisher, S. E., & Francks, C. (2006). Genes, cognition and dyslexia: learning to read the genome. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(6), 250–257.

Fletcher, J. M. (2009). Dyslexia: The evolution of a scientific concept. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(04), 501.

Frederickson, N. (2009). Special Educational Needs, Inclusion and Diversity. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Frith, U. (1986). A developmental framework for developmental dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 36(1), 67–81.

Frith, U. (1999). Paradoxes in the definition of dyslexia. Dyslexia, 5(4), 192–214.

Galaburda, A. M. (2005). Dyslexia—A molecular disorder of neuronal migration. Annals of Dyslexia, 55(2), 151–165.

Galaburda, A. M., Sherman, G. F., Rosen, G. D., Aboitiz, F., & Geschwind, N. (1985). Developmental dyslexia: four consecutive patients with cortical anomalies. Annals of Neurology, 18(2), 222–233.

Gathercole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D. (2014). Working Memory and Language. Psychology Press.

Graham, J., & Kelly, A. (2012). Reading Under Control: Teaching Reading in the Primary School. Routledge.

Greatrex, J. C., & Drasdo, N. (1995). The magnocellular deficit hypothesis in dyslexia: a review of reported evidence. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 15(5), 501–506.

Habib, M. (2000). The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia. Brain, 123(12), 2373–2399.

Hoeft, F., Hernandez, A., McMillon, G., Taylor-Hill, H., Martindale, J. L., Meyler, A., … Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2006). Neural Basis of Dyslexia: A Comparison between Dyslexic and Nondyslexic Children Equated for Reading Ability. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(42), 10700–10708.

Høien, T., & Lundberg, I. (2000). Dyslexia: From Theory to Intervention. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Høien, T., & Sundberg, P. (2000). Dyslexia: From Theory to Intervention. Springer Science & Business Media.

Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2013). Developmental Disorders of Language Learning and Cognition. John Wiley & Sons.

Humphreys, P., Kaufmann, W. E., & Galaburda, A. M. (1990). Developmental dyslexia in women: neuropathological findings in three patients. Annals of Neurology, 28(6), 727–738.

Jackson, N. E., & Coltheart, M. (2001). Routes To Reading Success and Failure: Toward an Integrated Cognitive Psychology of Atypical Reading. London and New York: Psychology Press.

Joshi, R. M., & Aaron, P. G. (2016). Handbook of Orthography and Literacy. Routledge.

Joubert, S., Beauregard, M., Walter, N., Bourgouin, P., Beaudoin, G., Leroux, J.-M., … Lecours, A. R. (2004). Neural correlates of lexical and sublexical processes in reading. Brain and Language, 89(1), 9–20.

Justus, T. C., & Ivry, R. B. (2001). The cognitive neuropsychology of the cerebellum. International Review of Psychiatry, 13(4), 276–282.

Kelly, K., & Phillips, S. (2016). Teaching Literacy to Learners with Dyslexia: A Multi-sensory Approach. SAGE.

Kirby, J. R., Desrochers, A., Roth, L., & Lai, S. S. V. (2008). Longitudinal predictors of word reading development. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49(2), 103–110.

Leong, C. K., & Joshi, R. M. (2013). Developmental and Acquired Dyslexia: Neuropsychological and Neurolinguistic Perspectives. Springer Science & Business Media.

Livingstone, M. S., Rosen, G. D., Drislane, F. W., & Galaburda, A. M. (1991). Physiological and anatomical evidence for a magnocellular defect in developmental dyslexia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 88(18), 7943–7947.

Lovegrove, W. J., Bowling, A., Badcock, D., & Blackwood, M. (1980). Specific reading disability: differences in contrast sensitivity as a function of spatial frequency. Science, 210(4468), 439–440.

Lovett, M. W., Steinbach, K. A., & Frijters, J. C. (2000). Remediating the core deficits of developmental reading disability: a double-deficit perspective. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(4), 334–358.

Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53(1), 1–14.

Nation, K., & Snowling, M. J. (1998). Semantic Processing and the Development of Word-Recognition Skills: Evidence from Children with Reading Comprehension Difficulties. Journal of Memory and Language, 39(1), 85–101.

Nicolson, R. I. (1994). Reaction times and dyslexia. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 47(1), 29–48.

Nicolson, R. I., Fawcett, A. J., Berry, E. L., Jenkins, I. H., Dean, P., & Brooks, D. J. (1999). Association of abnormal cerebellar activation with motor learning difficulties in dyslexic adults. The Lancet, 353(9165), 1662–1667.

Nicolson, R. I., Fawcett, A. J., & Dean, P. (1995). Time estimation deficits in developmental dyslexia: evidence of cerebellar involvement. Proceedings. Biological Sciences, 259(1354), 43–47.

Nicolson, R. I., Fawcett, A. J., & Dean, P. (2001). Developmental dyslexia: the cerebellar deficit hypothesis. Trends in Neurosciences, 24(9), 508–511.

Nicolson, Roderick I., & Fawcett, A. J. (2008). Dyslexia, Learning and the Brain. Cambrigde, MA, MIT Press.

Nijakowska, J. (2010). Dyslexia in the Foreign Language Classroom. Multilingual Matters.

Nunes, T., & Bryant, P. (2013). Handbook of Children’s Literacy. Springer Science & Business Media.

Marien, P., Engelborghs, S., Fabbro, F., & De Deyn, P. P. (2001). The Lateralized Linguistic Cerebellum: A Review and a New Hypothesis. Brain and Language, 79(3), 580–600.

Mather, N., & Wendling, B. J. (2011). Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention. John Wiley & Sons.

Mechelli, A., Gorno-Tempini, M. L., & Price, C. J. (2003). Neuroimaging studies of word and pseudoword reading: consistencies, inconsistencies, and limitations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(2), 260–271.

Mortimore, T., & Dupree, J. (2008). Dyslexia-friendly Practice in the Secondary Classroom. Learning Matters.

Morton, J., & Frith, U. (1995). Causal modeling - A structural approach to developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology (pp. 357–390). New York: Wiley.

Ott, P. (1997). How to Detect and Manage Dyslexia: A Reference and Resource Manual. Heinemann.

Pavey, B. (2007). The Dyslexia-Friendly Primary School: A Practical Guide for Teachers. SAGE.

Payne, T., & Turner, E. (1999). Dyslexia: A Parents’ and Teachers’ Guide. Multilingual Matters.

Petterson, R. & Pennington, B. (2015). Developmental dyslexia. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, 283-307.

Rae, C., Lee, M. A., Dixon, R. M., Blamire, A. M., Thompson, C. H., Styles, P., … Stein, J. (1998). Metabolic abnormalities in developmental dyslexia detected by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Lancet (London, England), 351(9119), 1849–1852.

Ramus, F. (2003). Developmental dyslexia: specific phonological deficit or general sensorimotor dysfunction? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13(2), 212–218.

Ramus, F. (2004). Neurobiology of dyslexia: a reinterpretation of the data. Trends in Neurosciences, 27(12), 720–726.

Ramus, F., Rosen, S., Dakin, S. C., Day, B. L., Castellote, J. M., White, S., & Frith, U. (2003). Theories of developmental dyslexia: insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126(4), 841–865.

Reid, G., Soler, J., & Wearmouth, J. (2003). Meeting Difficulties in Literacy Development: Research, Policy and Practice. Routledge.

Rice, M., & Brooks, G. (2004). Developmental dyslexia in adults: a research review. London: National Research and Development Centre for adult literacy and numeracy.

Richards, T. L., & Berninger, V. W. (2008). Abnormal fMRI connectivity in children with dyslexia during a phoneme task: Before but not after treatment. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 21(4), 294–304.

Rimrodt, S. L., Clements-Stephens, A. M., Pugh, K. R., Courtney, S. M., Gaur, P., Pekar, J. J., & Cutting, L. E. (2009). Functional MRI of Sentence Comprehension in Children with Dyslexia: Beyond Word Recognition. Cerebral Cortex, 19(2), 402–413.

Shastry, B. S. (2007). Developmental dyslexia: an update. Journal of Human Genetics, 52(2), 104–109.

Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Fulbright, R. K., Skudlarski, P., … others. (2002). Disruption of posterior brain systems for reading in children with developmental dyslexia. Biological Psychiatry, 52(2), 101–110.

Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2005). Dyslexia (Specific Reading Disability). Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1301–1309.

Skottun, B. C. (2000). The magnocellular deficit theory of dyslexia: the evidence from contrast sensitivity. Vision Research, 40(1), 111–127.

Snowling, M. J. (1995). Phonological processing and developmental dyslexia. Journal of Research in Reading, 18, 132-138.

Snowling, M. J. (2000). Dyslexia. Wiley.

Stein, J. (2001). The magnocellular theory of developmental dyslexia. Dyslexia, 7(1), 12–36.

Stein, J., & Glickstein, M. (1992). Role of the cerebellum in visual guidance of movement. Physiological Reviews, 72(4), 967–1017.

Stein, J., Talcott, J., & Walsh, V. (2000). Controversy about the visual magnocellular deficit in developmental dyslexics. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(6), 209–210.

Tallal, P., Miller, S. L., Bedi, G., Byma, G., Wang, X., Nagarajan, S. S., … Merzenich, M. M. (1996). Language Comprehension in Language-Learning Impaired Children Improved with Acoustically Modified Speech. Science, 271(5245), 81–84.

Thomson, B., Crewther, D. P., & Crewther, S. G. (2006). Wots that werd? Pseudowords (non-words) may be a misleading measure of phonological skills in young learner readers. Dyslexia, 12(4), 289–299.

Tunmer, W. E., & Greaney, K. (2010). Defining Dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(3), 229–243.

Ưodej, M. (2016). Dyslexia in First and Foreign Language Learning: A Cross-Linguistic Approach. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): what have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 2–40.

Whitebread, D. (2002). The Psychology of Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Routledge.

Wimmer, H., Mayringer, H., & Landerl, K. (2000). The double-deficit hypothesis and difficulties in learning to read a regular orthography. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(4), 668.

Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. G. (2000). Naming-Speed Processes and Developmental Reading Disabilities: An Introduction to the Special Issue on the Double-Deficit Hypothesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(4), 322–324.

Wolf, M., Bowers, P. G., & Biddle, K. (2000). Naming-Speed Processes, Timing, and Reading: A Conceptual Review. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(4), 387–407.

World Helth Organization. (1993).ICD Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Geneva, Switzerland.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2019v72n3p249

Copyright (c) 2019 Anna Belavina Kuerten, Mailce Borges Mota, Katrien Segaert

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.