Mineração de carvão, migração e etnicidade: uma história global

Autores

  • Ad Knotter Universidade de Maastricht

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5007/1984-9222.2015v7n14p13

Palavras-chave:

Mineiros de carvão, Etnicidade, Migração

Resumo

Em todo o mundo, empresas de mineração defrontaram-se com a escassez de mão de obra e tiveram de encontrar maneiras de recrutar um número suficiente de trabalhadores para as suas minas. As soluções adotadas variaram desde o envolvimento de camponeses em tempo parcial, cooptação de trabalhadores mediada por empreiteiros de mão de obra, sistemas de trabalho forçado, e até migração nacional e internacional sob regulação estatal. A importância desses tipos de “intervenção institucional” na mobilização de mão de obra para as minas de carvão é ilustrada com exemplos de diferentes partes do mundo. Os esforços para encontrar novos trabalhadores para as minas muitas vezes resultaram no recrutamento de grupos étnicos considerados de status social inferior, não só porque de origem rural e não qualificados, mas também porque vistos como inferiores do ponto de vista cultural ou étnico. Nesse aspecto, houve uma enorme diferença com relação à imigração e à fixação de mineiros qualificados, como os da Grã-Bretanha e de outros países. Diferenças étnicas eram associadas frequentemente à diversidade de status e de conhecimento técnico do ofício. Embora existam muitos exemplos de solidariedade e de cooperação interétnica, dependendo do período e das circunstâncias, as diferenças podem ter um efeito profundo sobre as relações sociais em comunidades mineiras.

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KNOTTER, A. Mineração de carvão, migração e etnicidade: uma história global. Revista Mundos do Trabalho, Florianópolis, v. 7, n. 14, p. 13-35, 2016. DOI: 10.5007/1984-9222.2015v7n14p13. Disponível em: https://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/mundosdotrabalho/article/view/1984-9222.2015v7n14p13. Acesso em: 25 out. 2021.